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In this final assignment, we willrevisit datasets that we have utilized in previous assignments, but with newobjectives.
Â·In the Week One assignment, youlooked at mortality in your particular state, with two different metrics: thefirst was numbers of deaths, and the second was years of life lost. For thisquestion, return to the original dataset, but this time first pool all cancercauses of death together, so that cancer constitutes the only category forcause of death. Then, repeat your analyses from Week One. How do yourconclusions change?
Â·In the Week Two assignment, youlooked at sex ratios for births in your state.
oTake the data you have assembled from the second part of your Week Twoassignment, namely, numbers of first-born boy and girl births in your statebetween 2007 and 2012, separately by racial group (i.e., American Indians,Asians, Blacks, and Whites). Form a two-by-four contingency table from thesedata: the two row categories are female (girl) and male (boy), and the fourcolumn categories are the four racial groups. Calculate the chi-squarestatistic from this contingency table, and interpret the result.
oReturn to the CDC Wonder website (Links to anexternal site.)Links to an external site., and obtain the numbers ofbirths in your state between 2007 and 2012, by month. (Disregard gender, orrace, or birth orderâyou want all births). Calculate a chi-square statistic toassess whether there is any seasonality to births. (Your null hypothesis isthat births should be equally likely to occur in any of the 12 months. We areignoring the varying lengths of the months to simplify calculations.) How wouldyou interpret your findings? Explain in 500 words in APA format supported byscholarly sources.
BONUS: Give agraphical representation of your findings for this portion highlighting whatyou consider significant.
Â·In the Week Three assignment, youwere given levels of tumor-associated antigens in a sample of 90 normal(non-cancer) individuals, and 160 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Hereis a proposed diagnostic test for HCC:
oFor each individual, calculate a numerical score:
Â§score = -3.95 + 10.7 * HCC1 - 4.14 * P16 + 13.95 * P53 + 28.92 * P90 + 6.48* survivin
Â§(This equation was derived from logistic regression.)
oIf this score is positive (i.e., > 0), diagnose this individual as anHCC patient; if this score is negative (i.e., <0), diagnose this individualas normal (i.e., non-cancer).
oApply this rule to the entire cohort of 250 individuals. Report thesensitivity of this rule, the specificity, the false positive rate, the falsenegative rate, and the overall accuracy. Do you think the score functionprovides a good diagnostic test for HCC? Explain.
Â·In the Week Four assignment, weconsidered a simple two-by-two crossover trial of a new experimental treatmentfor interstitial cystitis. We calculated t tests for carryover and treatmenteffects, but we have not yet considered period effects. It is unlikely thatthere are any period effects in this trial, but we may want to test thisformally. If there were a period effect, then patient responses under eithertreatment would likely be systematically higher in one period than the other.(Here's an analogy: Think of taking the same test twice. You would likelyperform better on the test the second time, since you have learned from yourexperience of taking the first test.) Explain how you would devise a t test forassessing a period effect in this trial. (Hint: look at the explanation of thet test for treatment effects given in the Week Four assignment. There, we basedthe test on the random variable X - Y. Suppose we look instead at X + Y?)
Â·In the Week Five assignment, youinvestigated measures of brain size and intelligence in a sample of 20 youths.A potential shortcoming of your prior analyses is that you did not take intoaccount all available information in the dataset, in particular, gender. Answerthe following questions and explain your answers:
oDo any of the physiologic variables CCSA, HC, TOTSA, TOTVOL, and WEIGHTdiffer significantly between males and females?
oDo IQs differ significantly by gender?
oUndertake a paired analysis of IQs, in order to assess whether firstbornshave higher IQs than non-firstborns. In this regard, there are 10 pairs ofrelated youths, as denoted by the variable PAIR.
Completing the Final ProjectThe Final Project:
1.Must include a title page with the following:
a.Title of paper
c.Course name and number
2.Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesisstatement.
3.Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
4.Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
5.Must use at least three scholarly, peer-reviewed sources published withinthe last five years (not including the course text) or those applicable to thedata sets.
6.Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford WritingCenter.
7.Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style asoutlined in the Ashford Writing Center. The number of pages must beapplicable to the specific data sets outlined in the Final Project assignment.