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Hi, I need help with essay on Mini Research Prospectus. Paper must be at least 1500 words. Please, no plagiarized work!Download file to see previous pages... Generally, these reinforcement probabiliti

Hi, I need help with essay on Mini Research Prospectus. Paper must be at least 1500 words. Please, no plagiarized work!

Download file to see previous pages...

Generally, these reinforcement probabilities and ratios are determined by baseline probabilities. It is through these that newborns understand or stick to their target story. Literature review Different studies previously conducted on the target stories reveal that maternal conditions influence an infant. The immediate conditions particularly influence the resultant infant. The underlying factors have a causal effect on the infant. Many studies seek to find out the relationship between the fetus and the environment. Especially people and the environment around the pregnant mother have previously been subjects of study. Successful studies reveal an increased level of communication b between the mother and the fetus. Mostly, this communication takes place in form of what the mother takes in. however, other studies have focused on whether the speech of people around a pregnant mother have any effect on the unborn. While results revel no connection, those of the mother tests positive. Such are the baseline probabilities that the study aims to look at, and their causal reinforcement probabilities and reinforcement ratios. ...

ed with an operant-choice procedure to determine whether the sounds of the recited passage were more reinforcing than the sounds of a novel passage (DeCasper and Spence, 1986). Results from their study reveal that the immediate pre-maternal speech influences how the newborn perceives sound. The probability of the maternal speech influencing the speech of a newborn is positive (DeCasper and Spence, 1986). There is a correlation between the two. Newborns prefer listening to their own mother’s voice to voices of other females. Nonetheless, they prefer listening to other female voices to that of the men. Further, they prefer their father’s male voice to that of other male. This shows of a silent communication between the children and the people around the mother. As they analyze the reasons for this, DeCasper and Spence (1986), they point out that the prenatal experience with their mother’s speech and heartbeat influences a newborn’s auditory preferences. DeCasper et al (1994) point out that normal prenatal exposure to maternal speech significantly influences the early speech development by the child. Their argument holds that there is the presence of women’s speech in the utero possessed by the late-term fetuses. In fact, the influence of these perceptions on the child is perpetual to the child. However, there is a high probability of the exposure to maternal speech altering the fetal speech perceptions. &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.For a long time now, studies have revealed that late-term pregnancies respond to sound frequently. There is increased intensity of communication in form of ultra-sound between the fetus and the mother. As such, the fetus portrays certain behaviorisms to signify they feel the communication.

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