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Hi, need to submit a 1000 words essay on the topic Models of Instructional Design.Download file "Models of Instructional Design" to see previous pages... The main models of instructional design are co

Hi, need to submit a 1000 words essay on the topic Models of Instructional Design.

Download file "Models of Instructional Design" to see previous pages...

The main models of instructional design are conceptualizing instructional design, a stimulus-response-reinforcement model and cognitive learning theory.

Conceptualizing instructional design was developed by Gagne and Briggs during the 1970s. Thos theory incorporates cognitive theory popular during this period of time.

Gagne and Briggs defined a set of requirements for instructional design systems, including that the system (a) must be designed for the individual, (b) should include immediate and long-range phases, (c) should substantially affect individual development, and (d) must be based on knowledge of how people learn (Gagn &amp. Briggs, 1974). Their theory was based on a set of capabilities, or learning outcomes, that students would acquire through instruction. These outcomes were classified into five categories: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills, and attitude.

The second theory of instructional design is based on behavior characteristics and behavior patterns. A stimulus-response-reinforcement model was developed during the 1960s and was based on behaviorist learning theories. Studies sought to determine the most effective means of implementing a stimulus-response-reinforcement model to ensure that the prescribed learning outcomes would be achieved. A major goal of research centered around a behaviorist task analysis and the development of behavioral objectives for learning (Tennyson, 1972 cited Jonassen et al 1989).

The third theory selected for analysis was developed during 1980s and influenced by new concepts and investigations in the field of cognitive psychology. Tennyson and Rasch (1988) offered a theory of instructional design that directly attaches specific allocations of instructional time to desired educational objectives and goals. They prescribed an instructional design theory that links cognitive learning theory with appropriate instructional strategies. By allocating time across a range of objectives they blended the structured and discovery approaches. In the acquisition of knowledge both structured and discovery strategies are employed. Although their goal was improving employment of knowledge, they specified both group and individual situations to help learners elaborate and extend their individual knowledge bases and cognitive processes (Scandura &amp. Scandura 1980).

In contrast to two previous theories, cognitive learning theory explains mental processes and takes into account thinking and perception processes. In contrast to this theory the goals of the behavioral analysis were on identifying small, incremental tasks or subskills that the learner needed to acquire for successful completion of the instruction, designing specific objectives that would lead to the acquisition of those subskills, and sequencing subskill acquisition in the order that would most efficiently lead to successful learner outcomes (Scandura &amp. Scandura 1980). Also important to researchers' investigations was the search for variables of individual differences.

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