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Hi, need to submit a 500 words essay on the topic SKINNER THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING.Though the theory looks complicated the idea behind it is very simple: if someone wants to increase some positi
Hi, need to submit a 500 words essay on the topic SKINNER THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING.
Though the theory looks complicated the idea behind it is very simple: if someone wants to increase some positive behavior, he has to reinforce this behavior with a reward and if there is a need to stoop some behavior it is necessary to punish or let it die out by not providing any reinforcement it.
Most behavior theorists presumed that if there is no stimulus there is no adequate response. While Skinner did not agree with this statement and considered that most of the responses could not be explained by known stimuli. He differentiated between two types of responses: the reaction to known stimuli which got the name reflexive, and the one provoked by unknown stimuli. So Skinner insisted on greater value of response in behavior change and modification compared to Pavlov`s model of stimuli.
Shaping is the process of clever and selective usage of reinforcement for stimulating of necessary behavior. There are three psychological concepts that are important for shaping: generalization, habit competition, and link of the segments in a stage
Reinforcement is the key concept in Skinner`s theory. It is the stimulus the change of which provokes a response in behavior. Positive reinforces increase the probability of response while negative reinforces decrease it.
Skinner thought that reinforcement is more influential in behavior shaping that motivation. A rat or a pigeon is reinforces by food while a student is reinforces by the knowledge of the correct answer. He also emphasized the value of extinction in the process of behavior shaping which means that there is no need in punishment of some negative behavior as it is possible not to reinforce it and let it die out.
Operant Conditioning can be utilized to interpret various types of behavior such as learning behavior, addiction and others. There also exists a concept of token economy which presupposes a reward of positive behavior with tokens (money, sweets, stickers, privileges). It also has practical application in