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QUESTION

History

Assess the evolution and impact of Canada's aboriginal policies since the Indian Act of 1876

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ANSWER

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********* and impact ** ************ ********** policies ***** *** ****** *** ** 1876

The

******

act

**

a

*******

law

**** ** *** ** ***** to ****** ** *** ******* ******** ** ****** ****** *** religious reserves It ** * Canadian law **** *** **** **** ** India since *** inception and ************** in the **** ** *** been *** ** place ** *** Indian and ******** ******* ****** ****** ***** *** ****** ********* ***** ** *** ***** ** *** **** absorbed *** **** ****** ** * bid ** absorb *** Indians **** the ****** *** ** day ********** ** ***** ******* of ********** *** *** ****** the ****** day- *** *** ********** to ** regulated ** the ******** Government ** * ***** ***** **** *** ****** applies ** all registered Indians *** ******** aim of *** act ** *** to get *** ** the tribal ****** *** ** ****** the ******* settlers **** *** system ** *** ******* way ******** ** ********* ****** *** *** ***** *** ******** ********** ****

*********

**** *** Indians *** *** ********** *** ********* goes to an ******* ** *********** *** ********* **** **** and ******* of *** ******* *** extends to further ******* *** ****** ** Indians ** practicing their ********** *** ******** practices *** *** *** **** enabled *** ********** to ******* *** land reserves that **** **** ******** ** *** ****** *********** ** *** managed to ***** ******* ** live ** ******** and **** ***** *** *********** as ** who is referred to ** ** ****** ********* to ************ and status *** act *** ******** by *** Gradual ************ Act ***** *** ****** ** the year **** This ********** ****** settlement and assimilation **** *** ******* ************ **** ************ act ****** ** ****** *** government *********** ******* act known as *** Gradual ************ Act ** 1869 *** ***** **** **** ****** ************ ** one

***

***** *** ***** the Indian **** ** 1867 This act ******* ********** *** *** ******* ******** ** ******** *** *** *** ***** ****** ********** as ******** **** ***** ** *** ******* **** ***** their invasion into ****** these aboriginal *********** have **** ******** for their rights **** **** ***** together ******* oppression and requested for ************* ** *** ******* ** *** ********** ***** leaders ********** ******* the oppression *** ****** ** ***** ****** ** * nutshell *** *********** ** *** other hand *** against the ********** ******* **** therefore strived to **** ** **** *** make ***** ***** ******* **** **** made ***** *********** less ********** ** ** ** continue ********** ******* ******* When *** ********** individuals ****** **** *** **** vigilant

in

the ***** **** ***** ** ****** ****** and cases ** land *** ********** ** *** ***** hand ******** *** chances ** ******* ****** ******* ** ***** *** ***** rights **** was ******** in ** ********* ** *** ****** act ** adding section *** ** *** *** **** *************** ******** *** Indians from ******** *** ***** ****** ***** ***** ***** *** constitutional ***** ** *** ***** **** *** to the *********** ** ******** ** ************* **** **** ********** rights ** Canada **** *** ************** ** ** ****** **** *** to *** ban of *** ********* ** the ******* at *** time ******* *** ************* ***** ******** **** ** ***** ***** *** ***** ****** *** this **** did *********** The Native *********** of ******* ******** *** *** ************* **** ********* continued **** their fight ** 1951 *** ****** act *** revised during *** ******

**

*** ****** World *** This *** influenced by *** United Nations ********* *********** ** Human ****** *** *** *** ******* *** *** ********** ***** ** the acts were ******* *** ******** * *** ***** this the ******* **** ******* to ****** ****** **** could *** ****** *** restrictions ** ******* **** **** **** supposed ** ** ******** ** Indian ****** ** ***** ** ******** *** ***** counsel for ***** sake ** **** ***** was * *** ****** It *** ****** ***

************

Paper” ****** The *** ** **** ***** *** ** **** ******* ******** *** ******* ******* *** ***** *** aiming ** ********** ********** *** ********** the Indian *** ******** **** *** department ** ****** ******* *** act *** imposed ** **** ** the then ***** minister; ******* **** *** later ******** by all ******* and *** ******** ** the Bill **** *** ****** ************** *** **** *** * ****** that was ******* to further ******* the ******* The *** ******* **** *** ****** ***** *** *** ******* ** *** non-Indian *** ***** cease ***** an ****** from **** ******* *** act ******* **** the status ** *** ***** *** completely ********* ** *** ****** ** *** husband *** ****** them ************ **** ********** ** Indian acts ** ****** *** not well ******** **

***

****** ** the ******* *** **** **** *** ******* grew opposition against *** Canadian government ** *** 2008 *** House ** ******* ****** * ****** ***** ** *** off the ******** Human Rights *** **** *** the **** ******** of *** **** ********** ** *** Indian acts ************ ******* * (2005) The embodiment ** ********* ****** *********** ** Aboriginal **************

Journal

of

******

************

**********

de

Sante'e

********

*******

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ANSWER

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***** * ** **** i **** *** work will **** you * ***

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lecturer langat
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****** *** ** no longer an ************* **** of *** ********** ********* in ****** For ******* this ************* and intrusive ***** ** federal *********** ******** ****** all ******* ** ********** life **** *** ****** ** band ********** *** **** ****** ******* ** restrictions ** ********** ******** practices Most critically *** Indian *** ******* *** ************** *** being * ************* ************* *** ** such *** **** *** ******* ***** ** ********** ***** **** ******* ******** ** ******* Aboriginal ******** *** ********** The ********** ** **** ******** legislation is *** being ******** ****** At the ********* ***** Aboriginal *** non-Aboriginal ******* ** *** ****** *** ***** ****** ********* of *** ****** ** ****** *** governance and ***** for the *********** ** **** outdated *** ** ****** relevant ************** ****** At the **** time recently ********* ****** **** ****** *********** **** ********** *** authority of the Indian Act over ******** ********** groups replacing the ******* *** **** ******* ********** ** ********** ******** *** ********** to ********** relations

*****

***** passed ** ********** in **** *** ****** *** has **** *** touchstone *** ********** affairs ** ****** Few ********* ** ******** ******* **** generated ** **** debate anger *** ****** ** *** Indian *** *** *** *********** ******** ** * ******* ******* in *** ********** of ********** affairs in *** ******* ***** ********** ***** **** historic *** ******* ***** ** *** ****** *** is **** and ******** Indigenous *********** *** *********** ****** strongly ******* ** ** *** ***** *** ******* of the *********** **** ** ****** surprising ***** that the ********* ********** and ********* ******** ** ********** communities ****** *** ******* **** for *********** **** ******* *** distorted ** the imposition ** ****** *** ********** systems **

**

********* to ********** both *** ******* *** ****** ** the ****** *** *** ****** *** reflected *** **** *********** **** ***** Indigenous ******* by *** ******** ***** Canadian ******* ** the *** ** late **** ******* *** basic ******** ********** as ********* for ******************* ********** and assimilation” **** **** *** ********** ** ****** viewed ********** ****** ** ***** **** ********** communities and *********** **** ********* of ******** their ******* **** *** ****** ****** ********** ** ********* ********** ******** **** *** ******** ********** *** **** the ***** ******* *** ** ** ********* **** *** **** ** Canadian ******* until **** **** ***** *** *** ********** *** ****** *** was *** ** a ******** **** ** *** ***** ** the ******* government ****** ******* ***** servants the authority ** ****** **** ******* ********* Indigenous ***** *** ***** ***** direct *** ******** *** ****** ***** ** ********** ********** people *** **** basic Canadian ***** *** ******** ****** to ******** of ********* of ******************* ** *** ******* stateThrough *** Indian *** the Government of ****** ******* itself ************ ********* over *** ***** of Aboriginal ******* and communities *** *** ******* * ************* ************* thereby setting ********** *** *** ****** ***** recognized *** ******* ***** ***** ** *** Act Indian Agents ********* by the ********** ** Canada had considerable power over ******* ********** officials *** **** ***** offices ***** *** terms *** conditions *** *** in *** *** ********** people had ************* fewer rights **** **** ***** Canadians At a time **** the voting ****** ** ***** ********* **** being expanded ****** ******* **** denied the *********** to **** *** ********** *********** *** process of *************** ***** ******** *** removal ** an ********** **** *** list ** ****** ******* ***** **** ********** for ********* enfranchisement ******* ** ** ********** and *********** *************** ***** occurred when * ****** ****** ******* university ****** * ****** or ****** ** *** otherwise ****** ** ********** officials ** ** ***** *** ***** into *** ******** mainstreamThe ****** *** gave *** ********** ** ****** ******* *** *** officials ******* **** ******* ***** and ********* *** ********** **** ** ******** ******** *** trade **** ********** people *** *** ****** *** ******* ***** ** ******** ******* policy ** ******** expectations and ******** ***** Aboriginal ****** ********** ** *** ****** *** ****** ******* cultural ********** **** ** *** *** ***** *** the ******** barred ********** *********** **** ****** ******* to ****** claims ******* *** ********** **** illegal ****** ******** ** ********** ********** affairs *** *********** **** ******* which ******* ****** ****** ** ******** *** movement ** people ** *** *** ******** Major amendments ** *** ****** *** ** **** ******* **** ** the **** ********* ******** ** Indian *** *** ************ ** ****** *** alcohol *********** ******** until *** ****** ** ***

final

****** of *** ***** ********** on ********** ******* ********** *** ****** ***

**

**** created ** Indian legislative ********* that has ******* to *** ******* *** ** *********** *** ***** in ***** ** *** ********** drafted ******* **** ****** ********* ********** **** ******* ******** *** resource and economic development **** ********** everything it appeared ** **** to ******** the unfinished ******** ********* **** its ******** ************ ****** ****** was now clear and was ********* ** *** *********** ** *** ******** ** *** interior David ***** **** the ***** *** *** ********** ** *********** ********** ******* **** ****** ** ******* as ****** ** as ***** ********** There was ** ** no middle ******* * **** ** ******

and

* *********** ** governmental ********* **** not ** ******* ** *** ****** ** the Indian *** on ********** people in ****** *** Indian Act ** ****** was ****** * **** **** by *** ********** of ****** to ******** near-total ******* over ***** ******* ****** ****** ****** *** ***** ************** ******* people *** ************* fewer ****** *** political privileges *** government ********* comprehensive control **** ********** **** determining where *** when **** went ** school *** management ** ***** **** and ******** ********* *********** **** from ******** *** *********** attempting to ***** ********** ******** *** ********** ***** ******* ******* *** ***** aggressive **** ** federally-appointed ****** ******* ** is difficult ** ********** *** describe the social and cultural consequences ** **** ***** ******* ********** ************ Dependency ******** loss ************** *** a ******** sense ** ************* **** the ******** political ****** are *** ******* ********** from * system **** ******** ****** **** *** individualism collective ****** ** * ******** Indigenous ******* *** ********* *** ********* **

***

****** *** *** not **** **** ********** *********** ****** ******** *** ** *** ***** *** ************ Nor **** ** **** **** they ********* ************* cultural *** ********* practices ****** ******* ******* legislation ******* ***** ****** ** ******** ********* ******* the ********* ** *** anti-potlatch proscriptions ** **** Coast First Nations is *** **** ******* – Aboriginal *********** ***** **** **** ** ****** ****** or ******** ************ imposed by *** ******* ********** Government-created Indian *** governments **** elected **** chiefs *** ******** often lacked ********** ** the eyes of their ****** ***** continued ** ******* and follow the ********** set by ********** ****** *** *********** ********* ******* **** **** *** ** *** official ********* *** ********** ******* funding flowed through *** **** ******** created *** ******* under *** Indian **** ********** ** *** ****** *** ***

***********

* ******* theme ** **** **** *** **** ******* ********** ********* life ** **** ********** ********** ** the legitimacy ** *** federal government’s *********** hand resulted ** ************ ********* *** ***** ******** ********* petitions ** the ********** ** ****** and *** ******* ***** ***** ********** ** defense of Aboriginal **** and ******** ****** *** a ******* ********* ** ****** *** regulations *** federal ****************** ******** ***** ******** harsh *********** ******** *** amendments to *** ****** *** **** ** *** provision ** ****** *** potlatch (and ********** ******* of ***** *** publicly ********* ** their ******** ********** *** the *********** ** the ****** of ******* ** pursue ********** ****** ******* the ****** *** passage ** **** **** *** *** stop ********** groups *** **** ********* ** **** *** ******** maintained ******** traditions ** *** **** ** ********* ******* ** ********** ** **** **** and ******** ***** respect *** ********** ******* *** they ********** ** * ***** basis in ** ********** *** unrelenting ****** **** ****** **** control over ***** lives and the *********** to *********** in ******* ******** ******** **** *** expansion ** ********** ********* organizations

and

******** ** *** 1960s *** ****** *** **** ***** ******* ******** ********** *********** and ********** ******* ************ ****** ** ******** *** ******** *** ************* *********** ** the Indian *** ** * somewhat disbelieving nationTo *** degree **** ************** ********* **** **** ********* to ********** affairs in *** 1960s ******* and few *** ******* most ******* **** the hand ** ********** *** gentle *** benign *** ************* *** *********** ********** leaders documented *** *********** injustices entrenched ** the Indian Act found support *** ***** ********** ** voting *** ***** ****** *** ********* convinced *** ********** ** ****** to back *** **** *** **** *********** *** ********* ******** ** *** legislation *** Indian *** ****** * ****** of *******

*********

****** *** some ******* ** ********** ********** ** Canada led ** the **** ** ***** ******** ****** ******* *** with Aboriginal ******* ******* by **** *************** Minister ** ****** ******* and ******** Development ******** the ****** Act Following ************ ****** and ********* *** *************** ** *** **** touted Hawthorne ****************** to ******** *** underlying causes of ********** disengagement **** ******** society ** **** a *** years ******* *** Government ** ****** ******** the White Paper ** ****** ******* ** **** Trudeau *** a well-established ******** *** *********** ** ******** ******* and ******** ******* ******* ****** *** any ***** ** Canadians *** White ***** ******* ** change **** It ******** the *********** of ****** ******** the *** of the ****** legal ******** of status Indians the shift of services *** ******* from the ******* to ********** governments ** *** the ***** Paper ********* *** replacement ** the ********** rights ** ****** ******* with ******* integration **** *** *************** ******** *********** *** Government ***** *** consulted with Aboriginal politicians ***

***********

and ***** *** ******** contradictory ****** ** *** **** ** ******* *** ************ for *** ******** **** ******** Indigenous ********* ******* **** notably ****** ******** ********* ** *** ****** *********** ** ******* ********* with ******* **** *** *** ***** Paper ** an extreme *** ** *********** challenging *** **** ***** of ********** ******** and ****** organization *** ********** ********** made it ***** **** **** ******* ******* ************* **** *** **** of the ******* ****** **** ******** ************ of the **** ** transform the ************* ********* of **** ******** – but that ***** identity ** ******** communities remained ** *********** ********** ***** *************** *********** ********** acceptance ** *** ***** Paper ***** ** *********** ******* * ********** ** ******* and ****** *** ********** ** ****** ****** **** although **** ***** very ****** **** **** *** underlying belief **** *** ****** Act *** the reserves created ***** *** *********** *********** to the separation ** ********** *** ***** ********* *** ******* ****** ***** ******** and ****** ************ *** ******* ********* *** ****** **** *** 1969 ***** *****

***

******** ******* ** the ***** *** political ****** of Aboriginal ******* ** ****** *** ********** ** ****** *********** ****** ** negotiate ********** specific *** comprehensive ****** Dozens ** ************ ********* ** the 1970s ****** slowly *** ***** ********* ****** ******** ********** Aboriginal politicians organized **** *********** ** the ******** level *** ******* * ********* ** ********* place in *** *************** political and ************** **** **** ******* to *** the attention ** *** Canadian ********** *** *** a time *********** * sharp positive ***** ** public support for ********** *********** **** *********** ********** **** *** delays ** *** ********* ******* **** *** federal *** ********** *********** to ***** ******* ******* *** ************ ********** ******** ** the ******* ********* recognition ** * **** ***** ** **** ******** *** ********* ****** In the ***** ***** few Canadians **** **** **** ******* ********* to ********** ******** by the end ** *** ******* the political *** legal ******* of Indigenous ****** *** communities often ********* ********** *** national political debates ****** *** ****** ** *** ****** Act ** Canada: *** foundations

**

********** community **** governance *** ********* **** the **** ** the ******* *** ******** ******* *** *********** *** ****** *** ******* federal ********** ********** ** ********** ******* *** *** *** ***** *** ************** structures ****** ***** ********** people ***** worked *** ********* ** ******* ***** ***** Much ********* *** ******* on *** **** serious ************* ** ***** ******* ****** **** ** *** **** regulations ********* ********* *** ******** ******** ** control the ******** *** *** Dance *** ***** ******* ******** ********* *** restrictions on ********** ****** *** *** right ** *** ******** ** ** ******* to ********** *** ************* ****** of the ****** *** ** ********** **** *** ****** *** effectively ****** Aboriginal *********** *** ******* **** status ******* ******** ****** the confines of *** *********** ** *********** and implemented ** *** ********** ** ****** ******** ** ** * status ****** ** ****** *** to ** immersed in

a

************ ****************** ***** enveloped ***** ****** ***** *** ********* *** which rendered **** largely without power ** ********* ***** destiny ** ** this ************* ***** ******* *** ******* ** being under *** effective ***** ******* of * distant ********* ********* ******* **** ******** away First Nations ******** undercut ***** ********** *** restricted ***** ******* ** compete effectively with other Canadians Total institutions ****** ******* ************ *** * ***** ** independence; **** are in ****** *** ********** ** ********** ************** *** ******** **** ******** ** ********** the **** ****** ** *** Indian *** must **** **** beyond the ******* ** ******** ******* amendments or *********** *** must ******* **** ******* ** *** **** ******** *** ************* ***** ** government *********** **** * ***** ******* ** status Indians ****** the ******* **** **** **** ****** citizens within ****** and therefore ****** *** **** ***** ****** ******** *** ************* available ** other Canadians The Indian *** ** both * ****** ** cultural and political ********** *** ** a **** real *** ********* ***** *** ***** ** **** Aboriginal ********* ************** and ******** ***** If ** ** ****** surprising **** ********** ******* ***** ***** ** *** ******

Act

**** ******** and ******** it is less **** ** ******* why many ****** ******* ******** to support *** ************ of the *********** albeit **** amendments and greater ********** ******* Most ** the ********** governments ********* operating ****** Canada derive ***** ***** **** the ****** *** *** ****** *** Councilors ******* ***** *** provisions operate ***** *** authority *** ********** ****** responsibilities ******** ********* ** the ********** of Indian ******* **** *********** ************ those in the **** ******* ******* ******** areas **** ******** ***** the ****** *** *** *********** *** *** ******** with *** ********** *** administrative *** ********* ********** *** ****** *** while *** source ** **** ***** ******* **** ** also the ***** and administrative ***** of ********** *************** The *** also makes ***** that *** ********** of ****** *** an ongoing *** comprehensive *** ** **************** ** First Nations people ** the ******* ******** ****** ******* ** ******* *** *********** ******* The debate about *** Indian Act **** the **** ** ***** has ************** ****

******

** *** sweeping ****** of the ***** ***** ** 1969 *** effort in *** **** ***** ** ********* the ****** *** ***** many ********** ******* ********* *** ****** to *** federal ****************** **** ** ********* *** special provisions and ****** *** ****** ******* In ***** ***** *** ******* government ********* * ********* *** ******* eliminating *** ****** Act – **** ** *********** outcome ******* stripping ****** ******* ** significant ***** and ********* rights *** ********** *********** *** ************ ********* ********** ******* ***** ******** the ****** *** **** ******** ******* ** historic ******** ** *** *********** of ******* *********** ** ***** ******* ****** ****** ** the White Paper Indigenous ******* *** ************** very **** about *** federal ****************** ******** ********** in ******** the ****** *** ******* ********* – *** ** ** that ******* *** ****** Act ** ***** commits *** ********** of Canada ** *** *********** of *** special ***** ****** ** Aboriginal ******* ****** ** however now moving ****** ******* **** **** *** emphasis ** *** ****** ***

**

the focal point for ***************************** ********* *** ********* ** *** ********** of ****** Affairs ** *** ***** ** ***** ******* *********** ******* further each **** ******* **** **** 80% of *** funds ***** on status ******* *** ******* ** **** or ****** *********** **** will expand ** *** ****** ***** Recent northern **** ****** ********** and agreements ** principle ****** ** British ******** ** 2006 **** ************** Aboriginal *********** *** ******* **** of the ********* *** relevance of *** ****** Act ** *** ************* and ***** ***** ******* **** experienced The ********** ** ********* ****** ** *** Lheidli T’eeneh Band *** ********* ***** Nations *** *** Tsawwassen First ****** all ******* ********** ********** ** ***** ** *** Nisga’a and ***** ************** creation ** ******* an **************** ************ **** the **** ***** of ****** ** the ***** two *********** *** ****** even ******* *** bar ** Aboriginal ********** *************** ********** **** that ********** ** *** ******** First ****** ********* ********* **** ** *** ********* of the ****** *** ****** the ***** of ******** First Nations *** ******* push ** ******** ****** treaties ** ******* ******** and ****** negotiations ** *** *********

will

**** **** result ** **** **** status ****** communities ******** ** come *** from ***** the ****** *** **** **** ******* ******* under *** ***** *** conditions ** ********** that recognize *** centrality of ********** *********** *** ****** ********** law-making authority ******* *** ********** ** Canada *** **** ****** in ***** **** beyond the ****** of *** ****** Act ** ****** ***** ****** has **** working more ******* **** ************ *********** *** with ***** ********** *********** groups who ****** ***** ***** **** *** being *** under *** ****** *** **** *** ******** ** ****** Indians *** ******* ************* ***** efforts **** ********** *** ******* role ** reserve-based band *********** ******* ***** *** Indian *** *** have ********* the federal ****************** programming *** Indigenous ****** in Canada *** ****** *** Indian Act ** longer ********* ********************* relations *** no ****** provides * ******** ***** *** the ********** ** ****** ****** ******** Despite all ** ***** ******* *** Indian *** ******* * *********** *** Aboriginal politics ** ****** ****

Indigenous

*********** still ***** *** *** ********* ****** ****** ** ** the ******* ************ of ******** *********** *** *********** and demand *** ********* ****** this ******* ***** of *********** ** ***** ******** ** ********** **** ********** *********** *** *********** feel more ************* ********* their ***** *** ********* The modern ******** signed in ******** districts **** ****** ****** *** ****** ******* and ********* ********* ***** ** *** declining **** of *** ****** *** ** the ***** of status Indians ** Canada ************** ********* ********* **** very ****** about **** important ********** **** ** **** long **** **** ****** ***** the ***** *** *********** associated with the Indian *** Long-standing ********* ** the ************** ************* ** ********** ****** and *********** – **** ** *** ********* **** taxation **** *** **** **** ** ******** ********** ** ************** ********* ******* become meaningless ** modern treaties ****** the financial relationships ******* ***** ******* *** *** ********** of Canada The ****** Act ******* ** ** losing its position ** ********** ****** *** ******** ********* and administrative scene

************

****** ********* ******** *** ******* ** Indian Act ******** ** *** ****** ******** There ** ****** ************ ****** the ******* ** the ********* *** continuing changes ******** *** ******* element ******* *** * major *********** **** *** ************* ******** on *** Indian Act ******* ** **** *** *** arrangements **** been ********** **** Aboriginal *********** *** ******** ** ********** *********** *** **** ********* ******* in *** ****** *** *** ****** *** **** that ** *** ******* by *** ********** of ****** without consultation **** *** ****** ***** ***** **** *** *********** controlled *** ****** ** the *********** ***** *** ***** of modern ******** *************** ********** *** ***** accords *** ***** model of Aboriginal ********** has ******* ** ****** *** *** *** symbolized by *** ****** *** ** ** its *** out *** *** *** ******* ************ ** *** ******* *** Yukon ***** Nations *** Nisga’a *********** *** ** ********** in ********* ** ******* Columbia ******* has ***** over ********* *** ************** **** in ********** *********** will ********* never ** *** **** *****

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lecturer langat
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****** Act ** ** ****** ** ************* part of *** ********** ********* in Canada *** ******* **** controversial *** intrusive ***** of ******* *********** ******** ****** *** ******* ** Aboriginal **** from the ****** ** **** governance and **** tenure systems ** restrictions on ********** ******** ********* Most ********** *** Indian *** defines *** ************** *** ***** * ************* ************* *** ** **** *** **** the ******* ***** of Aboriginal anger **** ******* ******** ** ******* ********** ******** and membership *** ********** ** **** ******** legislation ** now ***** ******** ****** ** *** ********* ***** Aboriginal *** non-Aboriginal critics of *** ****** Act offer ****** ********* ** *** ****** ** ****** *** governance *** ***** for *** *********** ** **** outdated *** ** ****** ******** ************** device ** *** same time ******** ********* modern **** claims *********** **** eliminated *** ********* ** *** ****** *** **** ******** Indigenous ****** replacing the federal *** **** ******* ********** ** ********** taxation *** ********** ** ********** **********

Since

***** ****** ** Parliament ** **** *** ****** *** *** **** *** ********** *** Aboriginal ******* ** Canada *** ********* ** Canadian ******* have ********* ** **** debate anger and ****** as the Indian *** Yet the *********** ******** ** a central ******* in *** management of Aboriginal ******* ** *** ******* While Aboriginal ***** **** ******** and ******* ***** ** *** ****** Act ** **** and ******** Indigenous *********** *** governments ****** strongly divided ** ** *** value *** ******* of *** *********** **** is ****** surprising given **** *** ********* ********** *** ********* cultures of Aboriginal communities ****** the ******* **** *** *********** **** ******* *** distorted by the ********** of Indian *** ********** ******** **

**

********* ** ********** **** *** ******* *** ****** of the ****** Act *** ****** Act reflected *** core *********** **** ***** ********** peoples by *** dominant Euro- ******** society ** *** mid to **** **** ******* *** ***** ******** summarized ** providing *** ******************* ********** *** ******************* **** **** *** ********** ** ****** ****** ********** ****** ** wards that Indigenous communities *** *********** **** incapable of ******** ***** ******* that *** ****** ****** eventually ** integrate ********** ******** **** *** ******** ********** *** **** *** ***** ******* *** to be ********* from *** **** ** ******** ******* until **** were ready *** *** ********** *** ****** *** was *** ** * powerful **** ** *** hands of *** ******* ********** ****** federal ***** ******** the ********* to ****** **** affairs ********* Indigenous ***** *** trust ***** ****** *** personal *** ****** ***** of individual Aboriginal people and **** ***** Canadian ***** *** personal rights ** hundreds ** ********* ** “wards” ** *** ******* ************ *** ****** *** the ********** of Canada ******* itself ************ ********* over *** ***** ** ********** ******* *** communities *** Act ******* a ************* ************* ******* ******* ********** for *** Indian ***** ********** *** ******* ***** ***** ** *** Act ****** Agents ********* by *** ********** ** ****** *** ************ ***** **** ******* ********** officials who held their ******* ***** *** ***** *** ********** *** *** ** *** *** Indigenous ****** *** ************* fewer ****** than **** ***** ********* ** * **** **** *** ****** ****** of ***** Canadians **** being ******** ****** ******* were ****** *** *********** ** **** The government *********** *** process ** *************** ***** ******** *** ******* ** an ********** **** *** list ** ****** ******* There **** ********** for ********* enfranchisement ******* ** ** ********** and involuntary enfranchisement ***** occurred **** * status Indian ******* university ****** * doctor ** ****** ** was otherwise deemed ** ********** ********* ** ** ***** *** ***** **** *** Canadian mainstreamThe ****** *** gave the ********** of ****** Affairs *** *** ********* ******* over ******* lands *** resources *** ********** **** ** ******** commerce *** ***** with ********** ****** *** *** ****** *** ******* ***** of ******** ******* policy to ******** ************ *** ******** ***** ********** ****** ********** ** *** ****** Act ****** ******* cultural ********** **** ** the Sun ***** *** *** ******** ****** Aboriginal *********** **** ****** ******* to ****** ****** ******* *** government **** ******* ****** ******** ** ********** Indigenous ******* *** established pass ******* ***** ******* ****** ****** ** ******** the ******** ** ****** ** *** *** reserves ***** ********** ** the ****** Act ** **** ******* **** ** the **** offensive ******** of ****** Act but ************ on ****** *** ******* consumption ******** ***** *** ****** ** ***

*****

****** ** *** ***** ********** on ********** ******* ********** *** ****** Act

of

1876 created ** Indian legislative ********* **** *** ******* ** *** present day ** *********** the terms in which ** *** originally ******* ******* **** ****** political ********** **** ******* patterns *** ******** *** ******** *********** gave Parliament everything ** ******** ** **** to ******** *** ********** ******** inherited **** its ******** ************ ****** ****** *** now ***** *** *** ********* ** *** *********** by the minister of *** ******** ***** ***** when the ***** act *** ********** in Parliament: ********** ******* **** ****** be treated ** ****** ** as ***** ********** ***** *** to be no ****** ******* * **** ** ******

***

a description ** ************ ********* **** *** ** justice ** *** ****** of the ****** *** on Aboriginal ****** ** ****** *** ****** *** ** ****** *** simply * **** **** ** *** Government of ****** ** ******** near-total ******* **** ***** ******* ****** ****** ****** all ***** CanadiansFirst ******* ****** *** ************* ***** rights *** political privileges The government ********* ************* control **** ********** life *********** where *** when **** **** to school *** ********** of their **** *** ******** ********* *********** **** from ******** key *********** ********** ** ***** Indigenous ******** *** ********** daily affairs ******* *** ***** ********** **** of federally-appointed Indian ******* ** ** ********* to ********** *** ******** *** ****** *** ******** ************ of **** ***** ******* ********** intervention Dependency ******** loss dispiritedness and a ******** ***** ** ************* **** *** ******** ********* ****** *** *** logical ********** from * system **** ******** little **** for ************* ********** ****** ** * positive Indigenous ******* *** existence *** ********* **

the

****** *** *** not mean **** ********** *********** ****** ******** *** ** its ***** *** ************ *** **** ** **** that **** ********* ************* cultural *** ********* ********* ****** ******* federal *********** ******* ***** ****** ** ******** ********* ******* the ********* ** *** ************* ************* ** **** ***** ***** ******* ** *** **** ******* ******* ********** *********** ***** many **** ** ****** ****** ** overcome restrictions ******* ** *** ******* ********** ****************** ****** *** *********** **** elected band ****** *** ******** often ****** legitimacy ** *** eyes ** ***** ****** ***** ********* ** ******* and ****** the ********** *** ** ********** chiefs *** traditional political ******* **** **** *** ** the official ********* *** government ******* ******* ****** ******* *** **** ******** ******* *** ******* under the Indian Act Resistance ** *** ****** *** was

importantly

* ******* ***** of **** **** *** **** century Aboriginal political life In fact ********** challenges ** the legitimacy of *** ******* government’s controlling **** resulted ** ************ ********* *** ***** protests ********* ********* ** the Government ** ****** and *** British Crown ***** ********** ** ******* ** ********** **** and ******** ****** *** * ******* ********* ** Indian Act *********** The ******* government’s response ***** ******** ***** *********** ******** *** ********** to *** ****** Act **** ** the ********* ** ****** *** potlatch **** subsequent ******* ** ***** *** ******** persisted ** their ******** ********** and *** prohibition on *** hiring ** ******* ** pursue Aboriginal rights ******* the courts *** ******* of **** **** *** *** **** Indigenous groups *** they continued to **** and ******** maintained ******** ********** ** the face ** ********* ******* by government ** **** them *** ******** ***** ******* *** ********** leaders *** **** ********** on * ***** basis in an ********** *** *********** system that ****** **** ******* **** ***** ***** *** *** *********** ** *********** ** ******* ******** ******** **** the expansion ** ********** ********* *************

***

******** in *** 1960s the ****** Act **** ***** ******* ******** Aboriginal *********** *** ********** ******* ************ energy ** exposing the colonial and paternalistic *********** of the ****** *** to a ******** disbelieving nationTo *** ****** that ************** ********* paid much attention ** ********** affairs ** *** 1960s – and few *** ******* most ******* that *** **** of government *** ****** *** ****** not authoritarian and *********** Indigenous ******* ********** the *********** ********** ********** in *** ****** Act ***** support *** their ********** on voting *** ***** ****** and ********* ********* the ********** ** ****** to **** off from *** **** *********** *** ********* ******** ** the ************ *** ****** Act ****** * ****** ** *******

*********

****** *** **** ******* ** innovation ********** ** ****** *** ** *** **** ** ***** Minister ****** ******* *** **** ********** matters managed ** **** *************** Minister of Indian Affairs *** ******** *********** reviewed *** Indian *** Following ************ ****** *** ********* *** recommendations ** *** much ****** ********* ****************** ** ******** *** underlying ****** ** Aboriginal ************* **** Canadian ******* ** **** a *** years earlier *** ********** ** Canada released *** ***** ***** ** Indian ******* in **** Trudeau had * **************** ******** *** *********** ** Canadian affairs and ******** opposed ******* ****** *** *** ***** ** ********* *** White Paper ******* ** change **** ** proposed *** *********** ** ****** ******** the end of *** unique ***** ******** of status ******* *** ***** ** ******** *** ******* from *** ******* ** ********** *********** ** sum *** ***** Paper ********* *** *********** ** the ********** ****** ** ****** Indians **** ******* integration **** *** individualistic Canadian mainstream The ********** ***** *** ********* **** Aboriginal *********** and

***********

and ***** *** ******** ************* advice on *** **** to ******* *** ill-prepared *** *** ******** **** ******** ********** political leaders most notably ****** Cardinal President of *** ****** *********** ** ******* ********* **** outrage They *** *** White Paper ** ** ******* *** ** colonialism *********** *** **** ***** of ********** ******** *** social organization The ********** leadership made ** ***** **** **** ******* ******* ************* **** *** **** of *** ******* ****** were ******** declarations ** *** **** ** ********* *** welfare-based ********* of many ******** – but **** their identity ** ******** communities ******** of *********** ********** ***** Chrétien *********** ********** ********** ** *** ***** ***** ***** ** *********** instead a ********** of ******* and ****** *** ********** ** ****** ****** **** although they ***** very ****** away **** the ********** belief that the ****** Act and *** ******** ******* under *** *********** *********** to the ********** ** ********** *** other ********* *** ******* ****** ***** economic *** social integration *** decades ********* *** ****** over *** 1969 ***** *****

***

******** ******* ** *** ***** *** ********* ****** ** Aboriginal ******* ** ****** *** ********** of ****** *********** ****** ** ********* ********** ******** *** ************* ****** ****** ** ************ ********* ** *** ***** ****** ****** *** often ********* toward eventual ********** ********** *********** organized **** *********** ** the ******** ***** *** assumed * ********* if ********* ***** ** the country’s ********* *** constitutional **** **** ******* ** *** *** ********* of *** Canadian ********** *** *** a time *********** * ***** positive ***** ** public ******* *** Indigenous *********** Many communities ********** **** the ****** ** the political ******* **** the ******* *** provincial *********** to ***** seeking ******* *** longstanding ********** ******** ** the process important recognition of * **** ***** of land ******** *** ********* ****** ** *** ***** 1960s *** ********* **** **** than ******* attention ** ********** ******** ** the *** ** *** ******* *** political *** ***** ******* ** ********** people *** *********** ***** ********* ********** and ******** ********* ******** ****** *** ****** of *** ****** *** in ******* *** ***********

**

Aboriginal ********* **** ********** *** ********* **** the rest ** *** country are ******** ******* For generations the ****** *** ******* ******* ********** ********** ** ********** ******* *** set the legal and ************** ********** ****** ***** ********** people lived worked *** attempted ** control ***** ***** **** ********* *** ******* ** *** **** ******* manipulations ** First Nations people **** ** *** **** *********** governing ********* *** reserves ******** ** control the ******** *** *** ***** *** other crucial ******** practices *** restrictions ** ********** ****** and the ***** ** own property It ** crucial to ********** *** ************* ****** of *** ****** Act ** Aboriginal **** *** ****** *** *********** ****** ********** communities *** ensured **** ****** ******* ******** within *** ******** ** *** *********** as *********** and *********** ** *** ********** ** ****** ******** ** be * ****** ****** ** ****** was ** be ******** in

*

************ ****************** ***** ********* ***** ****** ***** *** authority *** ***** rendered them ******* without ***** ** ********* their ******* ** ** **** all-inclusive ***** ******* *** ******* of being under *** ********* ***** ******* ** * ******* political ********* – **** ******** **** ***** Nations ******** ******** ***** ********** and ********** their ******* ** ******* effectively **** other ********* Total ************ ****** ******* ************ and * ***** ** ************* they *** ** ****** the ********** ** ********** demoralization *** ******** loss ******** ** understand *** **** impact of the ****** *** must move **** ****** *** ******* ** ******** ******* ********** ** *********** *** must reflect **** ******* on how **** ******** *** ************* piece of ********** *********** **** * ***** ******* to status Indians ****** *** ******* that **** **** lesser ******** ****** Canada *** therefore lacked the **** ***** ****** freedoms *** opportunities ********* ** ***** ********* *** ****** *** is both * ****** ** cultural *** ********* domination *** ** * very real *** pervasive ***** *** cause ** **** Aboriginal ********* ************** *** ******** ***** ** ** ** ****** surprising that ********** ******* often ***** to *** ******

***

**** ******** *** ******** ** is less easy to explain why **** ****** ******* ******** to ******* *** ************ ** *** legislation albeit **** ********** and ******* ********** ******* **** ** *** ********** *********** ********* operating ****** ****** ****** ***** power **** *** Indian *** *** ****** *** ********** ******* under *** ********** operate ***** *** ********* *** increasing ****** responsibilities hitherto ********* ** the Department ** ****** Affairs Many communities ************ those in the **** ******* ******* ******** ***** **** operated ***** *** ****** *** for generations *** *** ******** with *** ********** *** ************** and ********* ********** The ****** Act while *** source ** much First ******* **** is **** *** ***** and ************** ***** of ********** *************** *** Act **** ***** ***** **** *** Government of ****** has ** ******* *** ************* *** of responsibilities to ***** ******* ****** ** the ******* ******** ****** Indians of ******* and *********** ******* *** ****** about *** ****** *** **** *** past 40 ***** has ************** been

******

** the ******** ****** ** the ***** ***** of 1969 The ****** ** *** **** ***** ** eliminate *** ****** Act ***** **** ********** ******* ********* *** ****** to the federal ****************** **** ** ********* *** ******* provisions and ****** *** ****** Indians ** ***** ***** *** ******* government ********* a ********* *** – *********** *** ****** Act ******* with an *********** ******* ******* ********* ****** Indians of *********** legal and ********* ****** *** ********** obligations *** ************ ********* ********** ******* ***** ******** *** ****** *** **** ******** ******* ** historic ******** of the *********** of ******* *********** to ***** ******* ****** ****** ** the ***** ***** ********** ******* are ************** very **** about *** ******* ****************** ******** ********** ** changing the ****** Act ******* ********* – and it ** **** – *** ****** *** ** ***** ******* the ********** ** Canada ** *** recognition of *** ******* ***** ****** ** ********** ******* ****** ** ******* *** moving fairly ******* **** from *** ******** ** *** ****** Act

**

the focal ***** for ***************************** ********* The ********* ** *** ********** ** ****** ******* in *** ***** of ***** ******* *********** ******* ******* **** **** ******* **** than *** ** *** ***** ***** ** ****** ******* are ******* ** **** ** ****** governments This **** ****** ** *** ****** ***** Recent ******** land ****** ********** *** ********** ** ********* ****** in ******* Columbia ** **** have ************** ********** *********** and removed **** ** *** ********* *** relevance of *** ****** Act as *** Nisga’a and ***** ***** ******* **** *********** *** agreements ** principle ****** ** the ******* ************* Band *** ********* ***** Nations *** *** ********** ***** ****** *** ******* ********** ********** ** ***** ** *** ************* and ***** settlementsThe ******** ** ******* an Inuit-controlled ************ **** *** **** range ** ****** ** *** ***** two *********** *** ****** **** ******* *** *** ** ********** governance Self-government ********** like **** ********** ** *** ******** ***** Nation ********* ********* much ** *** authority of *** ****** *** ****** *** ***** ** ******** ***** ******** *** ******* **** to ******** ****** treaties ** ******* ******** *** ****** ************ in the Maritimes

****

**** time ****** ** even **** ****** ****** *********** ******** ** come out **** under *** Indian *** They **** ******* ******* ***** *** ***** *** ********** ** ********** that recognize *** ********** ** ********** governments *** accept Indigenous law-making ********* ******* the ********** ** ****** has **** ****** in other **** beyond *** limits ** *** Indian *** ** ****** ***** ****** has **** ******* **** ******* **** ************ *********** and **** ***** ********** *********** ****** *** ****** their ***** **** not ***** *** under *** Indian *** **** *** ******** ** ****** ******* *** reserve ************* ***** ******* **** ********** *** ******* **** of ************* **** *********** ******* ***** *** ****** *** *** **** ********* the ******* ****************** programming *** ********** ****** in Canada Put ****** *** Indian Act ** longer dominates Aboriginal-government ********* *** ** ****** ******** * ******** ***** *** *** management ** ****** Indian ******** Despite all ** ***** ******* *** ****** *** remains * touch-stone for Aboriginal ******** ** Canada ****

**********

*********** still ***** *** *** ********* ****** attack ** as the classic ************ ** ******** *********** *** *********** *** ****** *** ********* Slowly **** pivotal ***** of legislation ** being replaced ** ********** that ********** *********** *** *********** **** more ************* ********* ***** ***** *** ********* The ****** ******** signed ** ******** districts **** ****** models for future ******* *** ********* ********* ***** ** *** ********* **** ** the ****** *** in *** lives of status ******* in ****** ************** ********* generally know **** ****** ***** **** important ********** **** ** **** **** knew **** little ***** the ***** *** constraints associated **** *** ****** Act ************* ********* of *** ************** ************* of ********** ****** *** *********** – **** ** *** ********* **** ******** **** *** long **** so ******** criticized ** ************** ********* – become *********** as ****** treaties ****** *** ********* ************* between ***** ******* and *** ********** ** ******* The ****** Act ******* ** ** ****** *** ******** ** ********** ****** *** Canadian ********* *** ************** *****

************

****** ********* ******** the ******* of Indian Act ******** ** *** modern ******** ***** ** ****** appreciation ****** *** ******* ** *** ********* *** ********** ******* ******** The ******* element ******* *** * ***** improvement from *** ************* ******** ** *** Indian Act ******* ** that *** *** ************ have **** ********** **** Aboriginal governments *** ratified by Aboriginal *********** *** **** ********* element ** *** ****** *** *** ****** *** fact **** it *** ******* ** *** ********** ** ****** ******* ************ **** *** ****** ***** ***** were *** generations ********** *** shaped ** *** legislation Under *** ***** ** modern ******** *************** agreements and ***** ******* *** ***** ***** of ********** ********** *** ******* ** ****** *** *** *** ********** ** *** Indian *** ** ** *** *** out *** *** *** ******* demonstrated ** *** Council for ***** ***** Nations *** Nisga’a *********** and ** agreements ** principle in British ******** – has ***** over Political *** ************** **** in ********** communities **** ********* never be *** **** *****

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****** *** ** ** ****** ** ************* **** of *** ********** ********* ** Canada *** ******* **** ************* *** intrusive piece ** federal *********** ******** almost *** ******* ** ********** **** **** *** ****** ** **** governance *** land ****** ******* ** ************ on Aboriginal ******** ********* **** critically *** ****** *** ******* *** qualifications *** ***** a ************* ************* and ** **** *** **** the centre- piece ** ********** ***** over ******* ******** ** control ********** ******** *** membership The ********** of **** ******** *********** ** *** ***** ******** eroded ** the political ***** ********** and ************** ******* ** *** ****** *** ***** ****** ********* of the ****** ** Indian *** ********** *** ***** *** the *********** of this ******** *** ** longer relevant ************** device ** the **** time recently ********* ****** **** ****** *********** **** ********** the authority ** *** Indian *** over ******** Indigenous ****** replacing *** ******* law **** ******* ********** ** governance ******** *** government to government **********

Since

***** ****** ** Parliament ** **** the Indian *** *** been *** ********** for ********** affairs ** ****** *** documents in ******** ******* have ********* as **** ****** ***** *** ****** ** the ****** *** *** *** legislation ******** as a central ******* ** *** ********** ** Aboriginal affairs ** *** ******* ***** ********** anger **** ******** *** current terms of *** ****** *** is **** *** ******** ********** *********** and *********** ****** ******** ******* ** to *** ***** *** purpose ** the *********** **** ** ****** ********** given that *** ********* ********** *** ********* ******** ** ********** *********** across *** ******* **** for generations **** ******* and ********* ** the ********** ** Indian *** government systems **

**

********* ** ********** **** *** ******* *** ****** ** *** ****** *** *** ****** *** ********* *** **** *********** **** ***** Indigenous peoples ** *** ******** ***** ******** society in *** *** ** **** **** ******* *** ***** ******** ********** ** providing *** ******************* ********** *** ******************* **** **** *** ********** of Canada ****** ********** ****** ** wards **** ********** communities and *********** were ********* of ******** ***** ******* that the ****** sought ********** ** ********* ********** ******** into the ******** mainstream *** **** *** First ******* had ** ** ********* from the rest of ******** ******* ***** **** **** ready *** *** transition The Indian Act *** and ** * powerful tool ** the hands ** *** ******* ********** ****** ******* ***** ******** *** authority to manage **** ******* ********* ********** lands *** ***** funds ****** *** personal *** ****** lives ** ********** ********** ****** *** **** basic ******** civil and personal ****** to ******** of thousands of “wards” ** *** ******* stateThrough the ****** *** *** Government ** ****** granted itself ************ authority **** the ***** ** ********** ******* *** *********** The Act ******* * ************* ************* ******* ******* ********** *** *** Indian ***** recognized *** ******* ***** ***** ** *** *** ****** ****** appointed ** the ********** ** ****** had ************ power over elected ********** ********* who held ***** ******* ***** the terms *** ********** *** *** in *** *** Indigenous ****** *** significantly ***** ****** **** **** ***** ********* ** * **** **** *** ****** ****** ** ***** ********* **** ***** ******** ****** Indians **** ****** *** *********** ** vote *** government *********** the ******* ** *************** which involved *** ******* ** ** individual **** *** **** ** ****** Indians ***** **** ********** *** ********* *************** ******* ** ** individual and involuntary *************** ***** ******** **** a status Indian ******* university ****** * ****** ** ****** ** was ********* ****** ** ********** officials ** ** ***** *** ***** into *** Canadian ************* ****** *** **** the Department of ****** ******* *** *** officials ******* **** ******* ***** and resources and ********** them to ******** ******** *** ***** **** ********** ****** *** Act ****** *** ******* ***** of ******** ******* ****** ** ******** expectations *** ******** ***** ********** people ********** to *** Indian *** banned ******* ******** ********** such ** *** *** ***** *** the ******** ****** Aboriginal *********** **** ****** lawyers to ****** ****** ******* *** ********** made ******* ****** ******** ** ********** Indigenous ******* *** established **** ******* ***** ******* Indian ****** ** ******** *** movement ** ****** on *** *** ******** Major ********** ** *** ****** Act ** 1951 ******* **** of *** **** ********* elements ** Indian Act but prohibitions ** ****** and alcohol *********** ******** ***** *** ****** ** ***

*****

****** ** the Royal ********** ** ********** Peoples observed: *** Indian ***

**

**** ******* ** ****** *********** framework **** *** ******* ** *** present *** ** *********** the ***** ** ***** it *** originally drafted Control over Indian political ********** land ******* ******** and resource and ******** *********** gave ********** ********** ** ******** ** **** ** ******** *** unfinished policies inherited **** *** ******** ************ Indian ****** *** now ***** *** was ********* ** the *********** ** *** ******** of *** ******** ***** Laird when the ***** *** *** introduced ** *********** “the ******* **** either be ******* as ****** ** ** ***** men” There *** to ** ** middle ******* * list ** powers

and

a *********** of ************ ********* **** *** ** ******* ** *** ****** ** the ****** *** on Aboriginal ****** ** ****** The ****** *** ** ****** *** simply a **** **** ** *** ********** of ****** ** ******** ********** ******* **** ***** ******* ****** ****** ****** all ***** ************** ******* ****** *** ************* ***** rights *** ********* ********** The ********** ********* ************* ******* **** ********** life determining ***** *** **** **** **** to ****** *** ********** ** ***** **** *** ******** ********* prohibiting them **** ******** *** *********** ********** ** ***** ********** ******** *** ********** ***** ******* ******* the ***** ********** **** ** federally-appointed Indian ******* ** ** ********* to categorize *** ******** *** ****** *** ******** ************ ** **** ***** ******* government ************ ********** ******** **** ************** *** * ******** ***** ** ************* from the ******** ********* ****** are *** ******* ********** **** a ****** **** ******** ****** **** *** ************* ********** ****** ** a ******** ********** ******* *** existence and ********* **

***

****** *** *** not mean **** ********** *********** ****** ******** *** ** its ***** *** ************ *** does ** **** that **** ********* long-standing ******** and ********* ********* ****** ******* federal legislation imposed ***** ****** In ******** instances – the ********* ** *** ************* ************* by **** ***** ***** Nations ** *** best ******* – ********** communities ***** **** **** to ****** ****** or overcome ************ ******* ** the ******* ********** ****************** ****** *** *********** with ******* **** ****** and ******** ***** lacked ********** ** the **** ** ***** ****** ***** ********* ** ******* *** ****** the directions *** by ********** ****** and *********** ********* systems **** **** *** of the official ********* and government ******* ******* ****** ******* the **** ******** ******* *** ******* ***** *** Indian Act ********** to *** ****** *** ***

***********

* ******* ***** ** **** **** *** 20th ******* ********** political **** ** **** ********** ********** ** *** ********** ** *** ******* government’s controlling **** ******** ** ************ ********* *** ***** ******** ********* ********* to *** ********** ** ****** *** *** British ***** ***** challenges ** defense of ********** **** and ******** ****** *** * ******* flaunting ** ****** *** *********** *** federal ****************** ******** often ******** ***** legislative measures *** ********** ** *** ****** *** **** ** the provision ** outlaw the potlatch **** subsequent arrests of those *** ******** ********* in ***** ******** ********** *** the prohibition ** *** hiring of lawyers ** pursue Aboriginal rights ******* the ****** *** passage of **** **** *** *** **** ********** groups for they ********* ** meet and ******** ********** ******** ********** in *** **** of ********* efforts ** government ** stop **** *** ******** ***** ******* *** ********** ******* *** **** functioned ** * daily ***** ** ** oppressive *** unrelenting ****** **** denied **** ******* **** ***** lives *** the *********** ** *********** ** ******* ******** ******** **** *** ********* of ********** ********* organizations

***

******** ** *** 1960s the ****** *** came under ******* ******** Aboriginal *********** *** supporters devoted ************ ****** to ******** *** ******** *** ************* imperatives ** the ****** *** ** a somewhat ************ ******** *** ****** **** ************** ********* **** much ********* ** ********** ******* ** *** ***** – and few *** – most ******* **** the **** of ********** was ****** *** benign *** ************* *** *********** ********** ******* ********** *** *********** injustices entrenched ** *** ****** Act ***** ******* for ***** insistence ** ****** *** other rights *** ********* ********* *** ********** ** ****** ** **** off **** *** **** *********** and ********* ******** ** *** ************ *** Indian Act ****** * matter ** intense

*********

debate and some ******* ** ********** ********** ** ****** led ** *** **** ** ***** ******** Pierre ******* and **** Aboriginal ******* ******* ** **** Chrétien ******** of Indian ******* *** ******** Development ******** the ****** Act ********* considerable review *** ********* *** *************** of the **** ****** ********* Reportcommissioned ** ******** the ********** ****** of ********** ************* **** ******** ******* ** only a *** ***** earlier *** ********** ** ****** released *** ***** ***** ** ****** ******* ** 1969 ******* *** * **************** ******** *** *********** ** ******** ******* and ******** opposed special ****** *** any ***** ** ********* *** ***** ***** ******* ** ****** **** ** ******** *** elimination ** ****** ******** *** *** ** the ****** legal position ** ****** ******* the shift of services *** ******* from the ******* to ********** governments ** *** *** ***** Paper ********* *** *********** ** *** ********** ****** ** status ******* **** ******* integration **** the *************** Canadian *********** *** ********** which *** ********* **** ********** *********** ***

communities

and which *** received ************* advice ** how **** ** ******* was ************ *** *** ******** **** ******** Indigenous ********* ******* **** notably ****** ******** ********* of *** ****** *********** ** ******* ********* **** ******* **** saw *** White ***** as ** ******* *** of *********** *********** *** **** ***** ** Indigenous ******** *** social ************ *** Aboriginal leadership **** ** ***** **** **** ******* ******* participation **** the rest of *** country -there **** ******** declarations ** the need ** transform the ************* ********* ** **** ******** – *** **** ***** identity ** ******** *********** ******** of *********** ********** ***** Chrétien *********** ********** ********** of *** White ***** ideas ** *********** ******* * fire-storm ** ******* *** ****** *** Government of ****** backed **** although they moved **** ****** **** from the underlying belief **** *** ****** *** *** *** ******** ******* ***** the *********** contributed ** *** ********** ** ********** *** other Canadians *** thereby ****** ***** ******** *** ****** ************ *** ******* ********* *** ****** **** *** 1969 ***** *****

***

******** changes in the ***** *** ********* ****** of ********** ******* ** Canada *** ********** ** ****** reluctantly agreed ** ********* ********** ******** *** comprehensive claims ****** of ************ commenced ** the ***** ****** slowly *** ***** ********* ****** ******** resolution ********** *********** ********* **** *********** ** *** national ***** and assumed * ********* ** ********* place ** *** country’s ********* and constitutional **** **** managed ** get *** attention ** *** Canadian ********** *** *** a **** *********** * sharp ******** ***** in ****** ******* for ********** *********** Many communities ********** with the ****** ** *** ********* ******* took *** federal *** ********** governments ** ***** ******* redress *** longstanding ********** ******** in *** process ********* *********** ** * **** array of **** ******** *** ********* rights ** *** ***** ***** *** ********* paid more than ******* attention ** Aboriginal ******** ** the *** of *** century the ********* *** ***** ******* ** ********** ****** and *********** often ********* provincial and ******** ********* ******** ****** *** Future ** *** Indian Act ** Canada: *** ***********

of

********** community **** ********** *** ********* **** *** **** ** the ******* *** ******** ******* *** *********** *** ****** Act ******* federal government management of ********** affairs and set the ***** *** administrative ********** ****** which ********** ****** lived ****** and ********* ** ******* their ***** **** ********* *** ******* ** the **** ******* ************* ** First ******* ****** such ** *** pass *********** governing movements *** ******** ******** ** ******* *** ******** *** Sun Dance *** ***** ******* ******** practices and restrictions on ********** ****** *** the ***** ** *** ******** ** is ******* ** ********** *** ************* impact ** *** ****** *** ** Aboriginal **** *** ****** *** *********** ****** ********** *********** *** ******* **** ****** ******* ******** ****** *** confines of *** *********** as interpreted *** *********** ** the ********** of ****** ******** To ** * ****** ****** ** ****** was ** be ******** **

*

“total ****************** which ********* those ****** under *** ********* *** ***** ******** **** largely ******* ***** ** determine their ******* ** ** **** ************* ***** – *** reality ** ***** ***** *** ********* ***** ******* ** * ******* ********* authority ******* that ******** **** First ******* ******** ******** ***** ********** *** ********** ***** ******* to ******* *********** **** ***** ********* ***** ************ ****** dignity self-respect and * ***** of ************* **** are in return *** foundation of dependency ************** and ******** loss ******** ** ********** *** full impact ** *** ****** *** **** **** **** ****** *** ******* ** ******** ******* ********** ** *********** and **** reflect **** broadly ** how this ******** *** ************* piece ** ********** legislation **** * clear ******* to status ******* across *** ******* that they **** ****** citizens ****** Canada *** ********* ****** *** most ***** rights freedoms and ************* ********* ** ***** Canadians *** Indian Act ** **** a ****** ** ******** *** ********* ********** but ** * **** **** *** pervasive ***** *** ***** ** much Aboriginal ********* discouragement *** ******** ***** ** ** ** ****** ********** **** Indigenous ******* often ***** to *** ******

***

**** ******** *** ******** ** is **** easy to explain why **** status ******* ******** to support *** ************ ** the *********** albeit with amendments *** ******* Aboriginal control Most ** *** ********** *********** currently ********* ****** ****** ****** ***** ***** **** the Indian *** The ****** *** Councilors elected ***** *** ********** ******* under *** ********* and increasing assume responsibilities ******** ********* ** *** ********** ** ****** ******* **** *********** ************ those in *** **** densely ******* southern ***** have ******** ***** *** ****** *** for *********** *** *** familiar **** *** ********** *** ************** and political ********** The Indian *** ***** *** ****** of **** ***** ******* **** is **** the ***** *** ************** ***** ** ********** *************** *** *** **** ***** clear **** the ********** ** ****** has ** ******* *** ************* *** of **************** ** First Nations ****** ** *** ******* ******** ****** ******* ** ******* *** *********** ******* *** ****** ***** *** ****** Act **** the past ** ***** *** understandably ****

******

by *** ******** ****** ** *** ***** Paper ** **** The ****** ** *** **** 1960s ** ********* the ****** Act ***** **** Aboriginal leaders ********* was ****** to the federal ****************** **** ** ********* *** ******* ********** and rights *** status Indians ** other ***** *** ******* government ********* * ********* *** ******* *********** the Indian Act ******* **** ** undesirable ******* – ********* ****** ******* ** *********** ***** *** political ****** *** ********** obligations Not ************ therefore ********** ******* ***** ******** *** Indian Act **** occurred ******* ** ******** ******** ** *** *********** ** ******* *********** ** First Nations people ****** to *** White Paper ********** ******* are understandably **** **** ***** *** federal government’s ******** intentions in ******** *** Indian *** However imperfect – and ** ** **** ******* *** ****** *** ** ***** ******* *** Government of ****** ** *** *********** ** *** ******* ***** ****** ** ********** ******* ****** is ******* *** ****** ****** ******* **** **** *** ******** ** *** ****** ***

**

*** ***** ***** *** ***************************** relations *** ********* of *** Department ** ****** ******* ** *** ***** ** ***** Nations communities ******* ******* **** **** Already **** **** *** ** the ***** ***** on status Indians *** ******* ** **** ** ****** governments **** **** ****** in *** ****** years ****** ******** **** claims ********** and agreements ** ********* signed in ******* ******** ** 2006 **** revolutionized ********** governments *** ******* **** of *** authority *** ********* ** *** Indian *** as the ************* and Yukon ***** Nations **** experienced *** agreements ** principle ****** by *** ******* T’eeneh Band the ********* First Nations and *** ********** First Nation *** ******* ********** ********** ** ***** in the ************* *** ***** settlementsThe creation ** ******* ** Inuit-controlled ************ with *** **** ***** ** ****** as *** other *** *********** *** ****** even ******* *** *** ** ********** ********** *************** agreements **** **** negotiated ** *** Westbank First ****** ********* ********* much ** the ********* ** *** ****** Act ****** the lives of ******** First ******** The ******* **** ** ******** modern treaties ** British ******** *** ****** negotiations ** the *********

****

**** **** result ** even **** ****** Indian *********** ******** to **** *** from ***** the ****** *** **** **** ******* operate ***** *** ***** and conditions ** ********** that recognize *** ********** ** Aboriginal governments *** ****** ********** ********** ********* ******* *** Government ** ****** has **** moving ** other ways ****** the limits ** *** ****** *** ** recent ***** ****** has been working more closely with ************ *********** *** with urban ********** *********** ****** *** ****** their ***** were *** being *** under *** ****** *** **** *** emphasis ** ****** Indians *** ******* ************* ***** ******* have challenged *** central **** ** ************* **** *********** ******* ***** *** ****** *** *** **** broadened the ******* ****************** *********** *** ********** ****** ** Canada *** simply the ****** Act ** ****** ********* ********************* relations *** ** longer ******** * ******** focus for *** ********** of ****** ****** ******** Despite *** of ***** ******* the ****** Act ******* * touch-stone *** ********** ******** in ****** ****

**********

politicians ***** ***** *** *** ********* ****** attack it as *** ******* ************ of Canadian *********** *** colonialism *** demand its abolition ****** **** ******* ***** ** legislation ** ***** ******** by ********** that Aboriginal *********** *** communities **** **** ************* represent ***** needs *** ********* *** modern ******** ****** in ******** ********* **** become ****** for ****** ******* *** ********* important signs ** *** ********* **** ** the ****** Act ** *** lives ** ****** ******* ** Canada ************** Canadians ********* **** **** ****** about **** ********* ********** **** as they **** **** very ****** ***** *** ***** *** *********** associated **** *** ****** *** ************* critiques ** *** “special status” ** ********** people and communities – **** as *** ********* **** taxation that *** **** **** ** strongly criticized ** ************** ********* ******* become *********** ** modern ******** ****** *** ********* relationships between First ******* *** *** Government ** Canada *** ****** *** appears to ** losing *** position of ********** ****** *** ******** political *** ************** *****

************

little ********* followed *** ******* ** ****** *** ******** in *** ****** treaties There ** ****** ************ ****** *** ******* of *** ********* and ********** ******* ******** *** ******* ******* ******* *** * ***** improvement **** *** ************* reliance ** the ****** Act ******* ** that *** *** ************ **** **** ********** **** ********** *********** and ******** by ********** communities *** most ********* ******* ** the ****** Act *** ****** *** fact **** ** was ******* ** *** Government ** Canada without ************ **** *** ****** ***** ***** were *** *********** ********** and shaped ** *** *********** ***** the ***** ** ****** ******** self-government ********** and other accords *** ***** ***** ** ********** ********** *** ******* ** ****** *** *** *** ********** ** the Indian *** is ** *** *** *** The *** way ******* demonstrated ** the Council *** Yukon ***** ******* and Nisga’a *********** and ** agreements ** ********* ** ******* Columbia ******* *** taken **** ********* and ************** **** in Indigenous *********** **** ********* never ** *** **** *****

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