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Identify which informal fallacy is occurring in each of the following: Professor Krause, it would be wrong for you to flunk me for cheating.

I. Identify which informal fallacy is occurring in each of the following:

Professor Krause, it would be wrong for you to flunk me for cheating. I am a single mother, and to provide for my two kids, I have to work three jobs. At the end of the day, I am absolutely exhausted, and after I drag my weary body home, I have neither the time nor energy to study.__________________

Child to playmates: "It is too my turn to bat, 'cuz if you don't let me bat, I'm going to take my ball and bat—the only ones we have—and go home!"________________

Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy is not worth the paper it is printed on. Nietzsche was an immoral reprobate who went completely insane from syphilis before he died.__________________

The boss has told me a dozen times to clean up my office. But she should look at her own office. Garbage is strewn everywhere, and the place is overrun with cockroaches. Obviously her arguments are not much good. _______________

Mr. Fuller, who is running for the U.S. Senate, was seriously wounded during the last war. Therefore, it is certain that he would make a great senator. _____________.

The Auto Advisor column of the newspaper says that the Chevy Corsica is a great car. But the column fails to mention that General Motors executives make millions of dollars. Nobody deserves to be paid that much. In fairness, people should be paid according to the amount of work that they do, and none of those executives does any more work than the average guy on the assembly line. Clearly the Auto Advisor is out to lunch. _____________.

The secretaries have asked us to provide lounge areas where they can spend their coffee breaks. This request will have to be refused. If we give them lounge areas, next they will be asking for spas and swimming pools. Then it will be racquetball courts, tennis courts, and fitness centers. Expenditures for these facilities will drive us to bankruptcy _______________.

Federal officers assaulted the family of Randy Weaver in northern Idaho, killing his wife, and they were also involved in the destruction of the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, with great loss of life. The conclusion is clear that federal officials are just a pack of killers. ____________.

Either you let me continue dating Charley, or my life will be ruined. You don't want to ruin my life do you? ______________.

Paul, I understand that your tax return is being audited again. Are you still cheating on your taxes? _________________.

Ms. Thompson said that she never swears. But just the other day she was sworn in as a judge. Apparently Ms. Thompson does not tell the truth._______________

Either we require forced sterilization of Third World peoples or world population will explode and all of us will die. We certainly don't want to die, so we must require forced sterilization __________________.

Children should always obey their parents. Therefore, little Davey should follow his alcoholic father's orders to drop out of school and get a job. _______________.

So your stock broker has tried to persuade you to buy 1000 shares of Macro Data. Well, I wouldn't trust his arguments. He just wants to earn that fat commission on the sale. ______________.

Aspirin is an analgesic drug, and it is appropriately purchased over the counter. Morphine, like aspirin, is an analgesic drug. Therefore, it would be appropriate that morphine be available over the counter.__________________.

I see that our courts are being asked to rule on the propriety of

outlawing video games as a "waste of time and money." It seems that we may be onto something here. A favorable ruling would open the door to new laws eliminating show business, spectator sports, cocktail lounges, the state of Nevada, public education and, of course the entire federal bureaucracy ___________________.

Christine said that she painted her picture hanging on the wall of her bedroom. Obviously Christine is quite an acrobat._______________.

After Florida relaxed its concealed weapons law, the crime rate dropped. Clearly, allowing people to carry concealed weapons results in a reduction of crime. ______________.

You should do whatever you can to support the local football team. This team really has the community behind it, and if you don't support it, you'll be a social outcast.__________________.

20. Boss to employee: "I know you will be delighted to go out with me tonight. You know, of course, that you are up for a promotion next month." ___________________.

The fact is that the hype over "acid rain" and "global warming" is just that: hype. Take, for example, Stephen Schneider, author of Global Warming. In his current "study" he discusses a "greenhouse effect of catastrophic proportion", yet twenty years ago Schneider was a vocal proponent of the theory of a "new ice age."___________________.

Professor Friedman, the great constitutional scholar, says that the First Amendment is the most important part of the Bill of Rights. We therefore conclude that the First Amendment is indeed the most important part of the Bill of Rights.______________.

Dear Ann: Recently, I was shopping downtown in 20 below weather. A stranger walked up to me and said, "I wonder how many beautiful rabbits died so you could have that coat?" I noticed that she was wearing a down coat, so I asked if the geese they got the down from to make her coat were still alive. She looked surprised. Obviously she had never given it a thought. If people are so upset about cruelty to animals, why don't they go after the folks who refuse to spend the money to have their pets neutered and spayed? Thousands of dogs are put to death every year because the animal pounds can't feed and house them. Talk about cruelty to animals, that is the best example there is.________________.

_________________(Identify a second fallacy in # 23.)

Carbon Dioxide is a poisonous gas. Therefore, its two components, carbon and oxygen, must be poisonous. _______________.

Paisley ties are in fashion now, because practically everyone is wearing them.____________.

The following discussion about extraterrestrials contain informal fallacies from the first 14; Fallacies of Relevance and Weak Induction.

Identify the informal fallacies in the following discussion. (Looking at sentences before and after a particular fill in the blank can aid you. Also, certain words or phrases can help you as well.)

"Hi! Glad that you could make it", Ralph says to his friend Claudia, at a Friday night party. "Hey, you missed a great discussion that Tom, Rueben, and I were having about abduction by extraterrestrials". Rueben just left, but he said he's been reading this book by Whitley Strieber. I think it's called Transformation—in which Strieber describes being kidnapped by creatures from outer space."

"Good grief! You don't actually believe that nonsense, do you?' Claudia asks incredulously.

Well, I don't think that Strieber would lie. Also, Ruben told us an amazing personal story. He was camping a year ago, and after he'd a couple of six packs of Moosehead, he says that he saw a UFO. So I think that we have to conclude there really are UFOs."{1.__________________}.

"What a joke!" Claudia asks scornfully. "Ruben was probably hallucinating. By the way, didn't he fail most of his classes last semester? His parents are spending a fortune for his education, and all he does is party, sleep, and ignore his studies. I think that that is immoral. {2._____________________}. As for Strieber, does he give any evidence?"

"As a matter of fact, he does, "Ralph replies smugly. "Apparently, a few years ago, he was driving with his wife on some country road, when both of them experienced an unusual blackout. When they woke up, they were thirty five miles further down the road and they had no recollection of how they got there. They claim that extraterrestrials must have abducted them, then hypnotized them so they wouldn't remember what had happened." {3.___________________}.

"Oh yeah, now I remember who Strieber is," answers Claudia, caustically. He's that wierdo who dreams up all kinds of fantastic stories just so he can write books about them and makes lots of money. {4._____________________}. That guy, in my opinion is a sickie. I wouldn't even consider his argument." {5._____________________}.

"I think that you are prejudiced, "Ralph says. "Why recent surveys show that sixty four percent of the American public believe in UFOs, and the number is growing every day. Shouldn't you be on board as well?" {6.______________________}.

"You've got to be kidding," Claudia mutters, shaking her head in disbelief. "I know that Strieber is a kook, "Claudia persists, "so all the other believers in UFO's must be too." {7._____________________}. "Next , you UFO people will be talking about little green men. Then you all will actually start claiming that little creatures are abducting people and experimenting on them. Before long they'll be manipulating our genes and trying to infiltrate the human race. In the end, everyone will suspect everyone else of being an alien, mass terror will prevail, and civilization will collapse!" Claudia exclaims in mock horror. {8.____________________}.

"Don't be a fool!" Ralph barks, irritated. "The problem with you is you're always the skeptic." Obviously, you're viewpoint is that we should refuse to believe in anything we can't clearly see or touch and also we shouldn't believe in God or an immortal soul {9.________________________}. Tom, that's what she's saying, isn't it?"

"More or less, "Tom agrees halfheartedly.

"Again, not at all, Claudia responds. "What I am saying is that people have to be just a little bit critical about what they believe. Apparently you believe any cockamanie story that comes your way. You're just so gullible. If you keep it up, everyone and their dog will take you for a ride."

" "Oh yeah? If I were you, I'd take a close look at my own beliefs", Ralph gibes. "Didn't I see you reading the astrology column just the other day {10._______________________}.

"Oh, shut up! says Claudia blushing. "I may read the astrology column, but I certainly don't believe it. I just read for fun. But the fact is, during the past twenty five years there have been thousands of alleged sightings of UFOs, and not a single one has led to any solid evidence of their existence. What do you make of that?"

"I think that we should look at this situation the other way around, "Ralph says. Up until now, nobody has shown that UFO's don't exist, so I think that we should give those people who claim they have seen then the benefit of the doubt. We should believe in UFOs and extraterrestrials until the sightings are proven false {11._______________________}.

"Well, okay, let's suppose, just for the sake of argument, that I admit the existence of UFOs and their little green pilots. How are we to respond to them? What are we supposed to do?" Claudia asks.

"For starters, we should extend an open invitation to them", answers Ralph. "They may come from a dying planet where millions of their compatriots desperately struggle for survival. Their sun may be burning out, their water supply exhausted, and their soil poisoned with toxic chemicals. Surely they deserve a second chance on a new planet." {12.______________________}.

"Maybe so," Claudia says in a patronizing tone. "And now that you mention it, we probably have a legal obligation to let them in. Our current immigration laws say that we have to admit at least 10,000 applicants annually, from every major nation. If those aliens would just sign the right papers, we'd have to give them permanent residency too{13.________________________}. However, what worries me is, they may have the wrong intentions. After all, didn't they conduct experiments on those people they abducted?"

"Yes, but don't we experiment on animals? If the animals don't complain, similarly, why should we? {14.___________________}. I'm certain that we have nothing to worry about," says Ralph, proud of his logic. "Oh brother", says Claudia, "Ralph, I think that it is time to go". Don't let any green men get you" "And you either," Ralph answers.

Extra credit: Multiple choice-select the choice that best completes the sentence and makes it true.

Revelation as a source of evidence.........

relies only on circular reasoning arguments for justification.

is never used as a source of evidence by critical thinkers.

should be justified in a non-circular fashion such as linear arguments based in history.

A skeptic is a person that.......

does not believe in anything.

is cautious to a fault; never being able to make a knowledge commitment.

will believe in many things, once the evidence is there, but not before.


do not exert an influence on the interpretation of facts.

that do not offer a comprehensive explanation of reality are considered philosophically inadequate.

do not need to be logically coherent as long as they address our existential needs.

Good evidence..........

should at least approach a "preponderance of evidence" standard.

will reach 100% certainty.

is made stronger the more cumulative it is.

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