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# In the question I am working on, the crime rate (crimes per capita) on the city's per capita police force size, so that the effect of number of...

In the question I am working on, the crime rate (crimes per capita) on the city's per capita police force size, so that the effect of number of police on crime can be determined. Obviously other variables effect the crime rate, so there is omitted variable bias. How would I determine the whether the true causal effect of police on crime is positive or negative? And how would I use the OVB (ommitted variable bias) formula to determine if this researchers regressions will over-estimate or underestimate the causal effect of police on crime rates? This is all without any data. Thanks a lot!