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Literature Refection

Please write a final paper of 1700 words or more discussingthe following questions. Be sure to begin your paper with an engagingintroduction and clear thesis statement, develop each point in the body of yourpaper using examples and quotes from the assigned readings, and conclude yourpaper with a restatement of your thesis and closing remarks. As always, be sureto maintain your credibility by including in-text citations and a referencelist correctly formatted in APA style.

• ShortStories: Analyze the elements of fiction, including setting, characters, pointof view, plot, symbolism, themes, tone and irony. Cite specific examples fromthe assigned stories for each element. Which of the short stories we read wasyour favorite, and why? Give several reasons.

• Poetry:Break down the elements of poetry, including imagery, figurative language,symbolism, word choice, themes, tone and sound. Cite specific examples from theassigned poems for each element. Which of the poems we read was your favorite,and why? Share several reasons.

• Drama:Review the elements of drama, including setting, characters, plot, stagedirections, symbolism, themes and dialogue. Cite specific examples from Triflesfor each element. How has reading the play deepened your understanding of liveperformances, television dramas and movies?

• Valuesand Morals: Values and morality have been recurring considerations in many ofour assigned works. Talk about personal values and moral codes as they areconveyed in each of the following: one short story (chosen from the Phase 1 orPhase 2 reading lists), one poem (chosen from the Phase 3 reading list), andthe play, Trifles.

• Whichof all the works we've read is your favorite and why? In what ways do you thinkit will make a lasting impact on you personally and professionally?

• FinalConsiderations: Discuss how literature can provide “a reflection of life” whichcan help us understand our own struggles, triumphs, values and moral codes andincrease our empathy for others. What is one thing you learned about yourselfthis term as a result of gazing into literature’s “mirror?”

ParagraphOne: Develop an introduction, witha solid thesis statement at the end.

Referto your essay completed for Phase 2 IP: You will compose a solid paragraph ortwo based on information from this assignment. You can use some of thismaterial for this assignment. Add a citation, and include the Reference in theReferences page at the end of this essay.

• 1.Short Stories: Analyze the elements of fiction, including setting, characters,point of view, plot, symbolism, themes, tone and irony. Cite specific examplesfrom the assigned stories for each element. Which of the short stories we readwas your favorite, and why? Give several reasons.

Thisis the assignment that was done for this phase


  Lifeis full of obstacles and the two stories; TheBirthmark and Battle Royal are amanifestation of this fact. Both stories present characters under real lifechallenges which may have life changing consequences. The gist of the story isthe issue of not attempting the challenges which outweighs the doubts andconcerns placing the characters in the paths of peril. The stories expose theidea of beauty and the societal perceptions about what is outside but the innerbeauty.

  RalphEllison’s story, Battle Royal is setduring the racist era of America’s history at the beginning of the 19thcentury. Blacks were humiliated and had to rise up and fight for their place insociety as represented by the grandfather and the narrator (Knight, 2003). Theaction in The Birthmark are set inthe late 1700s in Britain and critics have suggested it was written with theinfluence of outlandish fiction read by the author and concerned withsupernatural elements and fantasy. The characters are cast in the tradition ofthe romantic era and gothic tales which is reflected in the action in thestory.

  Accordingto Andrews et al, (2006) the young man in the story is the narrator and hisexperience of racial discrimination has a profound effect on him especially ashe thought of his grandfather’s dying words. He cannot quite understand thegravity of these words as he aspires for greatest but curtailed by a glassceiling. The narrator looks up to his grandfather for inspiration after therevelation of his words to the father that he should keep up the fight. “Livewith your head in the lion’s mouth…overcome them with yeses…let ‘em swoller youwith their vomit.” Aylmer is a mad scientist and just obsessed with perfectionin the death of his wife. He is said to love his wife but there is no evidenceto the contrary. He symbolizes a man of great scientific knowledge which was“almost perfect enough” (Hawthorne, 2000). Aminadab, Aylmer’s assistant is asymbol for nature with his physical stature and strength showing a sense ofearthiness. She is weak who allow Aylmer to dominate her in a case of love incarnationwhich proves fatal with her death. However, she is the one who insist on itsremoval to which he says he wouldn’t spare her even if the birthmark “takesrefuge in [her] heart” (Hawthorne, 2000). 

  Hawthorne’sstory is told in the third-person omniscient narration technique which enablesthe writer to present even the character’s inner thoughts and feelings. Thishelps the author get more from the characters however. In Battle Royal the first person narrator, “I” is used to greateffect. If the story changes the narrator’s point of view, then it would bedifficult for the readers to really see, hear, and smell what sorts ofprejudices and injustices the African-American went through.

The symbolism associated with the birthmark is allegorical and may beinterpreted in various ways depending on the individual characters. Itsymbolizes to Aylmer he societal concern about perfection, “mark of earthlyimperfection” and also represents Georgina’s ability of being mortal andsinless and the riding of it allows her husband to dominate. According toMeyer, (2000), the birthmark is in the shape of a small red hand standing forthe flaws in human nature as well as in character as exemplified in theBiblical name given to Aminatab meaning ‘a brute’ but doesn’t represent hischaracter for he is in touch with human nature and is against the removal ofthe birthmark. To Georgina, it symbolizes beauty and uniqueness as seen withthe many men pursuing her but to the women, it symbolizes ugliness andimperfection. The naked blonde stands for the otherness of women and theminorities in society. Both the young man and the woman are reduced to‘nothings’ in the story for the secondary roles they hold in society. She alsosymbolizes the freedoms in America thus the tattoo on her body of the flag.

  Thebattle royal symbolizes Africa-Americans struggle in order to gain arespectable place in society as opposed to the illusion of equality by in thecoins they have to collect from the rugs which makes them think with money theycan achieve what they have not been having. To Georgina, the birthmark signifybeauty and uniqueness as she was a perfect woman happy with herself untilAylmer who is unnatural team with natural assistant to correct the ‘flaw.’ ToAylmer, it signified his wife’s symbolic liability in sinning, decay, sorrow,and eventual death. He thus renders it as a frightful object which howevercaused him more horror and trouble than even his wife’s beauty (Putzi, 2006).

  Thematicconcerns addressed by the two stories include the limits of science andimperfections as evident in Aylmer’s case. He is presented as an idiot throwingaway a good thing he had-the beautiful woman who is now ‘perfect’ but dead.This shows that science can only function up to a certain point in the worldbut will fail when we attempt godlike powers. This is tied with an obsessivedisorder as Aylmer believed that, “The higher intellect, the imagination, thespirit, and even the heart might all find their congenial ailment inpursuits…would ascend from one step of powerful intelligence to another”(Knight, 2003). African-Americans in Battle Royal are discriminated against asthey are seen as flawed, not as perfect as whites with their black skin hues.The inferiority theme runs across the two stories. In Ellison’s story, there isdiscrimination as the African-Americans are viewed as inferior to the whites.Similarly, women in Hawthorne’s story are negatively viewed playing secondfiddle to the men folk.

  Anincident at a restaurant taught me a life lesson in a spectacular way. It wasaround midday at a down town motel and two Chinese gentle men came in. Theyquietly sat at a corner but the waiter busied themselves by fussing about withthe few white customers already served as they completely pretended they werenot seeing the now lonely customers sticking out like sore thumbs. When arather disinterested waiter sauntered to where they were, he almost thrust themenu to their faces and walked away without even a word.

  Themotel owner hurriedly entered flustered and profusely apologizing to thegentlemen for his lateness.  The ownerquickly moved them over to a prime location but now the waiters were all overthe table asking what they will take and even making suggestions. It is thenthat the owner introduced the gentlemen as the new owners and they were takingover immediately. You could see color draining from the humbled waiters!

  Thisunfortunate incident exposed to me the hypocritical nature of humanity thatthey look for outer beauty and associated flaws and coming up with preconceivedideas. They were discriminated against because of their skin color and place insociety but nobody bothered to see them as fellow human beings and investors toboot. Nature is shown to function in a planned way whereas science is flawedand unnatural and attempts to change the scheme of things can be catastrophiclike Georgina’s death (Hawthorne, 2000).


Andrews, W. L., Foster, F. S., & Harris,T. (2001). The concise Oxford companion to African   American literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellison, R., &Meyer, M. (2013). Battle Royal. In Bedford/St. Martin's (Eds.), Literatureto Go (Second ed., pp. 180-191).Boston, MARetrieved from http://wow.coursesmart.com

Hawthorne, N. & Meyer, M. (2013). The Birthmark.In Bedford/St. Martin’s (Eds.), Literature to Go (Second ed., pp.304-316). Boston, MA. Retrieved from http://wow.coursesmart.com

Knight, D. D.(2003). Writers of the American Renaissance: An A-to-Z guide. Westport,Conn:   Greenwood Press.

Putzi, J. (2006). Identifyingmarks: Race, gender, and the marked body in nineteenth-century America.Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Refer toyour essay completed for Phase 3 IP: You will compose a solid paragraph or two based on informationfrom this assignment. You can use some of this material for this assignment.Add a citation, and include the Reference in the References page at the end ofthis essay.

• 2.Poetry:Break down the elements of poetry, including imagery, figurative language,symbolism, word choice, themes, tone and sound. Cite specific examples from theassigned poems for each element. Which of the poems we read was your favorite,and why? Share several reasons.

This is the assignment for this phase

Poetry is different from prose in the way ituses language to convey its meaning in a more condensed and figurative ways asopposed to the more expansive, narrative and often logical structures of prose.However, this is not an implication that poetry is illogical but that it iscreated mostly from the need of escaping the logical and also expressing strongfeelings in a tight and condensed way. It is this that made the RomanticEnglish poet, John Keats termed as an escape from logical Negative Capability.

  Poetryalso combines the characteristics that are innate to it with those superficialappearances of prose. This is the reason why in most cases a general consensuson what can be regarded as “great” is debatable. Such poetry should follow thecharacters above and also set itself apart for its sophistication andcomplexity. It will therefore capture vividly images in a refreshing andoriginal way and at the same time weaving together such intricate elements in acombination like complex emotions, theme tension, with reflective profoundthoughts.

  Langston’spoem, Harlem answers the basicquestion posed in it by use of a series of similes which are themselves informof rhetorical questions. Through a simile, he asks whether a dream deferreddries up “like a raisin in the sun.” (Meyer, 2013 p.579) This image of a driedand wrinkled raisin helps to create contrasts with the big, juicy grapes thisdream was once. Other images are created in the following instances such as;Does a dream deferred “fester like a sore-/ and then run” or does it “stinklike rotten meat” or “crust and sugar over_ / “like a syrupy sweet”? (Meyer,2013 p.579) These images suggest that if a dream is postponed, it is bound torot, spoil, or infect the dreamer.

  Thelast line of this poem metaphorically emphasizes what happens to a dreamdeferred, -“Or does it explode?” or it becomes something bad like a burden.(Meyer, 2013 p.579)  There is also aheavy use of sensory language and it is purposely meant to create an unpleasanteffect. This is done through use of images of the ‘raisin,’ and ‘syrupy sweet.’This creates a sense of taste, though creating the impression something that isdistasteful, disgusting and with no nourishment. The of ‘heavy load,’ and‘festering and running sore’ are images contributing to the senses of touch andsight, as well as smell which helps in creating reality. The image of the‘heavy load’ suggests an explosion of the load which emphasizes the devastatingeffect of the dream when it becomes an illusion. 

  Frost’spoem, The Road Not Taken, employselements of personification. In the following line, the poet says, “Because itwas grassy and wanted wear.” (Meyer, 2013 p.575)  To personify the road ‘wants wear.’ This usesthe concept of the diverging road in relation to the choices or decisions madein life. The road is also used figuratively in reference to the literal roadsand the ‘roads’ we have to take in our life’s journeys. Langston figurativelyuses the term, “Sugar over like a syrupy sweet,” (Meyer, 2013 p.575) to comparethe dream deferred to stale candy. The same dream can be crusted over and beunreachable according to the poet.

  Accordingto Meyer, (2013) The ‘roads’ are acts of symbolism and imagery though the poetdoes not refer to the literal roads we know of but the means the choices we areforced to make in life. (p.98)  It isalso used as a metaphor as well as an extended metaphor where the two roads aresaid to diverge. This forking of the road is extensively used in the poem.

  InHarlem, the word ‘deferred’ has got connotations of the dreamer who does not alwaysaccept the postponement of the dream. He seems to be hurt from this which isfurther highlighted by the final metaphor of the bomb exploding and hurtingmany.

Poets often use words to denote deeper meaning. Frost uses the words‘diverged,’ ‘undergrowth,’ ‘yellow,’ and ‘trodden’ to underline the poemsdeeper meaning. The use of ‘diverged’ for example suggests that if the tworoads were travelling in the same direction, then there would be no need ofmaking choices but as they were forking out differently, then their end pointswould be different. According to Wilcox and Barron (2010), the use of‘undergrowth’ suggests vegetation and bushes growing under trees but itssignificance can be deduced from this line in the first stanza, “to where itbent in the undergrowth.”  This helpscreate the impression that the other side of the road is unclear and thereforethe indecision as he doesn’t know what lies there. This refers to real lifechoices we have to make which unless we have the capability of foretelling thefuture, we can never be sure of where and what will happen in future.

  Theuse of language and choice of words in a work of fiction is deliberate. Interms of language and choice of words use, Langston Hughes short story, Harlem, contains both denotative andconnotative words. The words ‘raisin,’ ‘stink, and ‘sags’ for example, havesuch meaning in reference to the postponed dream.

  The Road Not Taken tone is gloomy as the traveler laments on thepossibilities left by the need of making choices which are unfulfilled. Thewords, “sigh,” and “sorry” help to bring out this mood. The tone in Langston’spoem is one of desperation and despair. This is through the use of highlynegative and pregnant words like ‘fester,’ ‘sore,’ and ‘stink’ whichgraphically capture the dilemmas in human nature when nothing seems to bemoving as desired in way of actualizing the dreams and they have to be‘deferred.’ It is also reflective when pondering on the fate of the unrealizeddreams by the inhabitants of Harlem.

  Theimportance of the choices we have to make in the road to life is captured bythe figurative theme of Frost’s poem. The same is captured in Langston’s poemon not letting our dreams be deferred as well as not blocking others in thecourse of following their dreams. The poem, Harlemlooks at the wider picture of the frustration that characterized theAfrican Americans towards their struggle for equality in a racially segregateAmerica. The continued prejudices against them by the system were the drivingforce for the poem emanating from the Harlem Renaissance era which was aboutreawakening the dreams of the oppressed.

  Theuse of sound patterns in poetry is significant as evident in the two poemsvariously. In Harlem, there is use ofmusical sound in the beginning of his Montage(the Dream Boogie section).  The poetsays in reference to sound, “Ain’t you heard / The Boogie-woogie rumble? Of adream deferred.” (Meyer, 2013 p.575) This is further amplified with othermusical references such as the use of short bursts of rhythm and rhyme withwords like “meat/sweet,’ ‘load/explode,’ and ‘sun/run.’ These helps inrepeating and building the need of ideas like the series of repeated musicalnotes. This together with repetition of words like ‘Does it,’ and ‘Or’ at thestart of several lines creates a series of intense questions. The poet alsouses alliteration as in the words “like a syrupy sweet.” There is therepetition of the “s” sound. The use of alliteration is also evident, accordingto Meyer’s book (2013) in the following lines, “What happens to a dreamdeferred? / Does it dry up? (p.579). The “d” sound is alliterating in theexamples.

  Frost’spoem clearly shows there is “no road less taken” (Meyer, 2013 p.575) as bothare really worn the same. The superficial meaning concerning human nature isabout the idea of conformity but this is further from the truth but the issueof indecision in human nature is evident as suggested by the title. Humannature is about being confronted with tough choices which must be made to moveforward. The fear of regret seems to be the overriding fact in making lifelessons as the narrator hesitates in making the final choice fearing theconsequences.

  Thesubjects dealt with in Harlem are touching to say the least. I can onlyempathize with the plight of those whose dreams are just that, dreams becausethey have no chance to realize them as they are left to rot and fester likesores. The two poems have really opened up new vistas in my appreciation ofpoetry. What with the emotive subjects explored in such entertaining andfigurative language! 


Gilb, D. (2008). The flowers.

Gates, H. L., &Appiah, A. (2008).LangstonHughes: critical perspectives past and present.   Amistad Pr.

Meyer, M. (2013).Harlem. In Bedford/St. Martin’s (Eds.), Literature to Go (Second ed., p.575). Boston, MA. Retrieved from http://wow.coursesmart.com

Meyer, M. (2013).The Road Not Taken In Bedford/St. Martin's (Eds.), Literature to Go(Second ed., p.575). Boston, MA Retrieved from http://wow.coursesmart.com

Wilcox, E. J., & Barron, J. N. (2010).Roadsnot taken: Rereading Robert Frost. Columbia:   University of Missouri Press.

Referto your essay completed for Phase 4 IP: You will compose a solid paragraph ortwo based on information from this assignment. You can use some of thismaterial for this assignment. Add a citation, and include the Reference in theReferences page at the end of this essay.

• 3.Drama:Review the elements of drama, including setting, characters, plot, stagedirections, symbolism, themes and dialogue. Cite specific examples from Triflesfor each element. How has reading the play deepened your understanding of liveperformances, television dramas and movies?

This is the assignment for this phase


The play, Trifles,by Susan Glaspell was written in 1916 and reflected the playwright’spreoccupation with the culture-bound gender and sex-roles notions of theperiod. It suggests to women’s concerns which often considered unimportant,trifles issues bearing little or no weight to the true society work which islargely carried by the men folk. With the play, Glaspell questions both thevery relative value of men and women in their work and perspective in a high-tension drama. This is done through her development of two crucial narratives,that of men and women.

 According to Holsten (2003) “argues that thetwo parallels in the play are built on “the differences in [men’s and women’sperceptions and behaviors as they are] grounded in the home space” (p.282).That is why the male characters approach Wright’s house as a murder scene whilethe female characters accompanying them does so as a home.


The play was first published in 1916 thoughset in the last half of the 19th century when women in American hadno right to vote or sit in juries. Males dominated the society except in caringfor the children and homes. Women were merely decorative and useful at home.The events in the play also take place during winter as the sheriff comments,“it dropped below zero last night” (Glaspell, p.456). This setting is thereforeskillfully used by the author in characterizing the attitudes of the characterswith Mr. Wright being described as “a raw wind that gets to the bone” and“cold.”  Mrs. Wright previous state ofmind is characterized by the broken bottles and her loneliness and mentalanguish results to her “cracking up,” as symbolized by the cracked jars.

The opening scene introduces the setting ofthe play which remains almost constant throughout-a simple kitchen. It also presentthe central characters as the readers take in the setting with their enteringand exiting looking for clues as well as discussing possible motives. It is inthis disheveled kitchen in Mr. and Mrs. Wright’s house where the maincharacters are gathered after Mr. Wright’s murder has been discovered. Thescene is to change to the upstairs where the male characters proceed leavingthe female characters in the kitchen talking and taking notice of Mrs. Wright’s“little things” in the kitchen (Glaspell, p. 461) .


Before marrying Mr. Wright, Mrs. Wright wascalled Minnie Foster and cheerful in her youthful days as portrayed by thecolorful clothes she used to wear. However, her marriage saw an end to thispersonality as aptly summarized by Mrs. Hale. Though Mrs. Wright is the centralcharacter in this play, she does not appear on stage at all. There are onlyreferences of her by other on-stage characters. It is through Mr. Hale’sexposition that we learn of the murder as apart from Mrs. Wright, he is thefirst to discover it.

Unlike the male characters that are busylooking for forensic clues in solving the murder mystery, the female charactersin Trifles observe evidence revealingMrs. Wright’s emotional life bleakness. They conclude that Mr. Wright’soppressive and cold nature had to be very dreary living with. Theirconversation though being made as a way of passing time is very important tothe audience-it helps unveil a desperate housewife’s psychological profile


John Wright, a farmer has been murdered. Arope had been strung around his neck as he slept in the middle of the night.The suspicion somehow leads to his wife, Minnie Wright, a quiet and forlornwoman. The sheriff, the county attorney, his wife, and neighbors enter the house.His neighbors, Mr. Hale describes how he had paid them a visit the previous dayand the way Mrs. Wright had behaved strangely and stated that her husband laydead upstairs.

Mrs. Wright claims to have been fast asleep asher husband was murdered though it looks obvious she killed him and that is whyshe is arrested as a prime-suspect. The attorney as well the sheriff decidesthat the room has nothing important as way of evidence: “Nothing here butkitchen things.”  As the men exit thekitchen for the upstairs rooms to further investigate the murder crime scene,the women are left in the kitchen as they chat to pass time. Mrs. Peters andMrs. Hale however discover important murder clues that the men did not careabout. The play ends with the women getting out of the kitchen and announcingtheir determination of Mrs. Wright’s style of making quilt. In a clever punningof words, they say she “knots it” and not “quilts it,” which suggests the wayshe killed her husband.


Stage directions should be considered in thetheatre event totality and not just as an inscription on a page. This isbecause it affects the production in terms of looks, atmosphere and texture.Susan Glaspell uses two different formats to tell her story. There is a one-actscript and a short story. The female characters are in a situation in whichthey cannot speak freely and therefore are inhibited in a dialogue-basedscript. As a result of lacking an avenue of voicing their sentiments, theplaywright cleverly has to convey the same to the audience and thus the use ofthe physical choices by her actresses as there is no dialogue. This calls foran interpretation of the stage directions as no dialogue is presents even atthe most critical points of the play.


The lone unbroken bottle in the kitchensymbolizes Mrs. Wright and her chance once more to live her life with the deathof the husband. Just as they escape from the broken jars, Mrs. Wright breaksout of the “shell” of isolation caused by her husband who is now dead. A fancylittle box is found when gathering the quilt material and inside it is a deadcanary whose neck had been twisted.

The symbolic significance of this is thatMinnie’s husband was averse to its beautiful song, a song symbolizing herdesire for happiness and freedom. It is also illuminating that the two womenconceal this fact to the men with Mrs. Hale putting the box with the deadcanary in her coat pocket, there was no need of bothering the men with thelittle “trifle,” so they resolved. The cage therefore is Mr. Wright’soppression on his wife and her spirit for freedom


The play’s title refers to items than one inWright’s family which the male characters regard as irrelevant but Mrs. Petersand Mrs. Hale considers significant. There is also the possibility that thetitle refers to the Mr. Wright’s perception of the dead canary, an annoyingtrifle in his life. According to Glaspell, (2003), “The fact that mendon’t appreciate women is alive in the play. This is evident from the way mencarry themselves with an inflated sense of self-arrogance and importance,”(p.122). They want to be seen as strong, serious-minded, and tough detectivesthough they do not come any closer to female characters in having a knack fordetails.

It is therefore out of their pompous attitudesthat women are forced to be defensive and form ranks. Examples abound to showthis as in the way Mrs Peters and Mrs. Hale bond quickly even choosing to hidethe evidence they got as a way of showing compassion to Mrs. Wright. The veryact of stealing and hiding the box is a loyalty act to protect one of their owngenders and also a show of defiance against the patriarchal society’scallousness towards womenfolk.

The play also deals with the feminism thing asdeduced with the subtle hint given by the sheriff and the attorney when theyfound nothing of importance in the kitchen as they searched for clues: “Nothinghere but kitchen things.” This happens to be the first among many other similardisparaging remarks against women which minimizes their importance in society.The men present for example are critical of Mrs. Wright’s skills inhousekeeping, something that irks the sheriff’s wife, Mrs. Peters, and Mrs.Hale.


Of the three forms of literature, the playgenre is the oldest. Plays are meant to be performed to a live audience on astage by actors who have memorized their lines. On the other hand reading awritten play is not as fulfilling as it would be watching it live. The shortstory as a genre came with the advent of the novel. It is supposed to be readleisurely for one’s individual enjoyment or to a group of listeners. They arehowever restricted by time and space.

The genres however differ in terms of spaceavailable limiting the action as well as their scope. The use of literarydevices they employ is also different. The structure of the short story is likethat f the novel but different from the lay’s. in terms of style, they bothemploy metaphor and symbolism but the short story will use flashbacking andflash-forwarding as stylistic devices.


I believe the traditional feministunderstanding of the play is limiting as the socially constructed gendercategories are. The playwright apart from questioning the gender roles ascribedby society seems to invite readers to question the very construct which is evenmore complex as it is the way man understand, and how he believes he understandone another and their life stories.

According to Holstein (2003),” it is not really true of the women’s approach and decisionof protecting Mrs. Wright “simply derive from sharing…gender” (p. 288). Themost compelling reason for this argument is Mrs. Peter’s argument that ‘the lawis the law’ (Glaspell, 1902). This show the fact that she is not necessarilysympathetic to Mrs. Wright, the way Mrs. Hale does just because of their sharedsocial position and gender. It is because the two women go to the house withouta motive of discovering anything but ends up discovering valuable evidence fromwhich they construct their narrative.


Holstein, C. S. (2003), “Silent Justice in aDifferent Key: Glaspell’s Trifles.” The   MidwestQuarterly 44

Glaspell, S. (2003) Trifles. TheNorton Anthology of American Literature. Shorter 6th ed. Ed.   NinaBaym. New York: W.W. Norton &Company.

Glaspell,S. (2003)  Trifles.  Responding to Literature (4thEd.).  Stanford,  New York: McGraw   Hill.

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