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QUESTION

# Name each of the following compounds?

A)

The first one is a kind of hydrocarbon. When we identify the main chain, we can create the parent name to the IUPAC name.

The main chain has 4 carbons (here, it is depicted horizontally), which corresponds to the prefix "but"-. This has no double bonds or triple bonds, so it is a plain ol' alkane.

Therefore, this compound is some sort of butane-based compound, resembling this:

If we number the main chain carbons (in accordance with IUPAC Nomenclature rules) so that each sidechain is the lowest number possible (2), then that gives us the name of the sidechain attached to the four-carbon "main chain".

The sidechain is -"CH"_3, which is a one-carbon alkyl group called "methyl". We replace "ane" with "yl" because it is a fragment and not the entire compound "methane".

So, the compound is called bb(2-"methylbutane").

B)

In this inorganic transition metal complex, we take a somewhat different approach and look at the charge of the outer ligand (on the second coordination sphere).

["Cr"("NH"_3)_5"Cl"]stackrel("Nitrate")overbrace(("NO"_3)_2)

Each nitrate ion ("NO"_3^(-)) actually has a 1- charge, and there are two of them. So, the part of the formula in square brackets is going to balance out and have a 2+ charge.

stackrel("+2 charge")overbrace(["Cr"("NH"_3)_5"Cl"])stackrel("-1 charge each")overbrace(("NO"_3)_2)

This polyatomic ion's name is simply going to be appended, like when naming any ionic compound with two ions (such as silver nitrate, or calcium nitrate).

The chloro ligand ("Cl"^(-)) has a 1- charge, and each ammine ligand ("NH"_3) is actually neutral.

These ligands in the inner coordination sphere will have prefixes indicating how many of each there are, except if there is 1.

Also, if the prefix ends in a vowel and the ligand starts with a vowel, the double vowel is omitted. So, "pent" will go in front of "ammine".

The remaining charge has to balance out to give 2+:

x + (-1) = +2

=> x = color(blue)(+3)

=> [stackrel(+3)"Cr"stackrel(0)(("NH"_3)_5)stackrel(-1)"Cl"]^(2+)

So, we have "Cr"^(3+) in our transition metal complex.

Put that all together in all lowercase without a space (except for the appended anion name), in alphabetical order of ligand name:

stackrel("alphabetical order of ligand name")overbrace("prefix" + "ligand" + . . . + "prefix" + "ligand") + "metal"("oxid. number") + "anion name"

=> "pentammine" + "chloro" + "chromium(III)" + "nitrate"

=> color(blue)("pentamminechlorochromium(III) nitrate")

And since only one ligand differs in the inner coordination sphere, there is no special symmetry that we should account for in the naming.

(No cis/trans, no Delta"/"Lambda or "fac/mer" isomers, etc.)