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Need an research paper on how does the immune system response to v.cholerae infection. Needs to be 3 pages. Please no plagiarism.

Need an research paper on how does the immune system response to v.cholerae infection. Needs to be 3 pages. Please no plagiarism. How does the immune system response to Vibrio Cholerae infection The first response for all infectious diseases is the innate immune response. The response is nonspecific in nature and attacks any pathogen introduced in the body. Common symptom for this reaction inflammations accompanied by fever, redness and some pain. the response leads to secretion of natural defenses mediators which entail metabolites, prostaglandins, and arachidonic (Rollwagen, 2009). It is significant to note that the response is not specific in nature and does not target specific pathogens. In the first response, the IgM will be responsible for the detoxification of the pathogen by the antibodies. IgM is efficient after the initial attack by the pathogen. In this instance, the antibody will have created a self-defense mechanism, which will stimulate antibodies in the extracellular fluid and blood. The second immunity follows the innate response. This process includes secretion of IgA in the intestines. IgA is responsible for the body’s surfaces mainly the tract, gut and the urogenital tract. They are efficient in the response against pathogens as their directly neutralize the Vibrio Cholerae. IgG also plays a significant role as it is a high affinity antibody type. It encourages pathogenic cells and responsible for activating complementary systems if the Vibrio Cholerae persists in the victim’s body (Richardson, Kaper, and Levine, 1989). In this instance, the antibody connects through agglutination thus making them attractive to macrophages. this leads to ingestion of the bacteria. Antibodies also destroy the bacteria by inserting holes on its cell membrane (Rollwagen, 2009). After the second response against cholera, there is the production of antibodies, which suppress toxins produced by the bacteria. Mucosal immune response also plays a vital role in the Vibrio cholera detoxification because the bacteria are located in the intestines. Phagocytic and inflammatory responses of the host to the invading pathogen are in most cases immediate and nonspecific. After the first response is the second response, which more specific compared with the first. The second is specific because of the cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and antibody mediated immunity (AMI), which are adaptive immune forces. The CMI and AMI work together with the IgA to enhance the defense mechanism (Todar, 2012). Vibrio Cholera is a bacterium that tends to colonize small intestines in the proximal section. It elaborates cholera toxins and enterotoxins, which are responsible for the voluminous diarrhea among cholera patients. Anti-toxin immunity also plays a significant role in fighting cholera infection. Despite the argument that antibacterial immunity is readily available in the market, the body plays a crucial role in fighting the pathogen (Todar, 2012). This is where the first response also known as the primary response and the second or the secondary response. References Rollwagen, M. F. (2009). Biology/Immune system response against Cholera. Available at: Richardson, K., Kaper, J. B., and Levine, M. M. (1989). Human immune response to Vibrio cholerae O1 whole cells and isolated outer membrane antigens. 57(2): 495–501. Available at: Todar, K. (2012).Bacterial Defense against Specific Immune Responses. Available at:

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