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On the POLITICAL LEVEL, the most important aspect of Draco's reforms in the seventh century B.

55. On the POLITICAL LEVEL, the most important aspect of Draco’s reforms in the seventh century B.C.E. was:A. An increase in the severity of Athenian laws in order to curb the unrestrained behavior of aristocracyB. Radical redistribution of land in order to create economic equality and eliminate social conflictC. Reorganization of the social hierarchy in order to provide political stabilityD. Movement of judicial authority from the private to the public domain56. It would be INCORRECT (you are looking for the WRONG answer) to state that Solon:A. Addressed the sufferings of the poor farmers in order to strengthen the fragile agricultural base of the Athenian economyB. Introduced the Law of the Heiresses (Epicleroi) in order to preserve the economic base of the oikoiC. Was a democrat who instituted constitutional reforms based on economic and social equalityD. Responded to the dissatisfaction of the hoplite middle class which threatened the stability of the Athenian state

50. Which ONE of the following was ONE OF THE FEW ASPECTS of the former Mycenaean civilization to survive the Dark Age in Greece?A. The writing script known as Linear B, originally developed by palace scribes to keep track of the flow of goodsB. The economic system used by local rulers to redistribute goods from better endowed regions to the poorestC. The oral transmission of traditional heroic legends, exemplified by the works of HomerD. The tradition of manufacturing pottery decorated with images of humans and animals

46. Which ONE of the following statements is INCORRECT (you are looking for the WRONG answer)? Based on the material in the Tanakh, one may conclude that:A. Under the leadership of various patriarchal/tribal/clan leaders YHWH gradually became a national god of the 12 Hebrew tribesB. Hebrews formed their concepts of the Divine Essence in response to their ever-changing material conditions and historical challengesC. Hebrews always viewed YHWH as an ethical, benevolent Divine Essence that clearly distinguished the righteous from the guilty and treated each accordinglyD. YHWH frequently appears to be a vengeful, terrifying god who does not hesitate to impose collective punishment

47. It would be INCORRECT (you are looking for the WRONG answer) to state that the Prophets:A. Viewed religion as fundamental to the very existence and survival of humanityB. Influenced future religious, social, and ethical formations of Western CivilizationC. Expressed ideas that will eventually manifest themselves in the future quest(s) for social justice and even justify civil disobedienceD. Formulated the concept of the Messiah as the long-awaited Son of God, the Redeemer of humankindE. Introduced the concept of ethical monotheism, developed a sustained monotheistic faith and in so doing became the principal source of institutionalized Christianity and Islam48. It would be CORRECT to state that:A. After their emergence in fertile river valleys in the 4th millennium B.C.E., the early societies of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Nubia developed their cultures and expanded their influence through a complex combination of connections and conflictsB. The Akkadians, Amorites, Hyksos, an Assyrians conquered established civilizations and adopted and spread their cultures, and Egypt’s New Kingdom conquered its neighbors to the south whose upper classes adopted some of the features of Egyptian cultureC. Hittites, Phoenicians, Carthaginian and, later, Greeks created connections through both conquest and commerceD. By the 1st millennium B.C.E., Mesopotamia and Egypt had lost their independence and came under foreign rule; however, their cultural influence was enhanced and dispersed far and wide by their successors and conquerors, including the Persian, the Greeks, and the RomansE. All of the above statements are correct

42. The fundamental concept of the Jewish religion, the Covenant is parochial because it:A. Implied a deep bond among the Hebrew people and their neighborsB. Recognized the diversity of the godsC. Implied an exclusive, unique agreement between the Hebrews and their godD. Recognized YHWH was the universal and supreme Divine Essence

39. It would be INCORRECT (you are looking for the WRONG answer) to state that:A. Egyptian “cult of death” affected all aspects of Egypt’s social, political, and economic lifeB. Egyptian political theology was based on the mythopoeic world viewC. Engineering/building projects of the pharaohs were, in part, physical representations of political theology that was the foundation of Egypt’s social and political stabilityD. Funerary monuments built throughout Egyptian history were nothing more than expressions of an obsessive preoccupation with massive monument-buildingE. The farming villages of the Neolithic age, clustered along the fertile flood plain of the Nile became the foundation of large, complex, dynamic civilizations of ancient Nubia and Egypt

33. Which one of the following statements BEST describes religious outlook of the Hebrews as OPPOSED to Mesopotamian and Egyptian religious outlook?A. Nature is a “divine gift” to humanity to use, tame, and controlB. Gods are arbitrary in their distribution of rewards and punishmentsC. Every god has his/her own sphere of influenceD. Gods primarily demand sacrifices and are only secondarily concerned with ethical behavior and justice34. Please select the CORRECT SEQUENCE of the following historical periods /events from the EARLIEST (furthest from the present) to the LATEST (closest to the present):A. (1)Old Kingdom of Egypt;(2) The 3rd Dynasty of Ur;(3)Hittite Empire;(4)The Merneptah Stele;(5)End of Indo-European migration;(6)Destruction of Mycenaean CivilizationB. (1)The Rosetta Stone ;(2)The Standard of Ur;(3)The Classical Age in Greece;(4)Middle Assyrian Laws;(5)Hittites fight against Rameses II at Kadesh;(6)Hammurabi rules the kingdom of Babylon and issues his law codeC. (1)Rule of Akhenaten;(2)Rule of Nebuchadnezzar; (3)Cambyses’ conquest of Egypt; (4)The Battle of Salamis;(4)Rule of the Ptolemies in Egypt;(5)Beginning of the Hellenistic Age;(6)Classical Age in GreeceD. (1)The Palette of Menes;(2)Imhotep;(3) “Democratization” of religion in Egypt;(4) Destruction of Troy;(5)The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt; (6)The Rosetta Stone35. It would be INCORRECT (you are looking for the WRONG answer) to state that:A. Herders and pastoralists from the steppe regions between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea had crucial role in the creation of two great Near Eastern empiresB. The most important ideological factor promoting Assyrian political cohesion and imperialism was Assyrian warlike religionC. Two characteristics that lift Cyrus above the common level of warrior-king were his concept of empire and his relative respect for local customs and beliefs of his subjectsD. Zoroastrianism taught that humans were mere pawns in the “hands” of the divine forces of good or evilE. Hammurabi’s Law code was designed to regulate relationships among his people as well as to achieve the goals of an absolute, theocratic monarchy36. The lasting success of the Persians as the creators of the first cosmopolitan empire in the Ancient Near East can be best explained by all of the following conditions EXCEPT (you are looking for the WRONG answer):A. Creation and maintenance of excellent communication lines which allowed for the easy, swift transit of troops and commerceB. The unifying force of Zoroastrianism that taught support of the state as part of the code of ethics that led to “salvation”C. Relative cooperation of most conquered peoples, whose local customs, religions, and laws were both protected and, in some cases, fostered under Persian ruleD. Prosperous agriculture, successful collection of tribute and taxes, and active international tradeE. Claims of direct divine descent by the Persian kings

31. Hyksos’ domination was a challenge to the Egyptians, one that stimulated Egyptian imperialism and laid a foundation for a new era of Egypt’s power. What is the most plausible explanation of Egypt’s remarkable recovery after the Hyksos’ invasion?A. In the face of foreign occupation, Egyptians of all classes were willing to unite in a common cause of liberationB. Egyptians successfully used new technology and new methods of warfare to defeat their enemies and expand their territoryC. Egyptian victory over the Hyksos helped the victorious pharaoh to consolidate his power and determine future policy for his successorsD. All of the above statements contain elements Egyptian response to the adverse social and political conditions and the military challenge brought about by the Hyksos’ occupation

28. Which one of the following statement is CORRECT?A. Patriarchal system was more flexible in Egypt than in Mesopotamia; therefore, women occupied prominent positions in political, religious, and military lifeB. Marriage and family were central to Egyptian society and polygyny (access to multiple women) and polygamy (the custom of marrying more than one woman) were not practicedC. Brother-sister and father daughter marriages were commonly practiced by all social classes in EgyptD. In spite of their social, religious, and political prominence, Enheduanna and Hatshepsut are similar in the fact that their status was ultimately vicarious29. It would be INCORRECT (you are looking for the WRONG answer) to state that:A. Unification of Egypt under Narmer took place during the Old Kingdom in Egypt which is contemporary with the rule of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur in MesopotamiaB. Akkadian Empire is contemporary with the 1st Intermediate Period of EgyptC. Assyrians dominate West Asia between the 10th and 7th century B.C.E.D. Kingdom of Israel flourished in the Levant between the 11th and 10th century B.C.E.E. Between the 8th and 7th centuries B.C.E., Egypt was under the rule of Nubian pharaohs

23. Which one of the following statements is INCORRECT (you are looking for the WRONG answer)?A. In the late 24th century B.C.E., Sargon of Akkad established the 1st centralized state in MesopotamiaB. Semitic nomads identified as Habiru/Hapiru/Apiru who were first mentioned in the area of the Fertile Crescent between in the 19th century B.C.E. have been positively identified as the Old Testament HebrewsC. After the collapse of the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean Basin, a new and powerful Assyrian kingdom reached its peak between the 9th and the 6th century B.C.E.D. In the 6th century B.C.E., Chaldeans brought about the end of Judah, destroyed Solomon’s temple in Jerusalem, and deported large numbers of Jews out of CanaanE. Early Iron Age in the Ancient Near East which started around the beginning of the 12th century B.C.E. corresponds to the period of Hebrew settlement in Canaan

22. Which one of the following statements is INCORRECT (you are looking for the WRONG answer)?A. In the 24th century B.C.E., Sargon of Akkad was the founder of the 1st centralized state in Mesopotamia who established the “model” for all future absolute, theocratic, hereditary monarchies in Mesopotamian CivilizationB. After the collapse of the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean Basin, a new and powerful Assyrian kingdom was the first one to rise in Mesopotamia around the 9th century B.C.E.C. In the 6th century B.C.E., The Chaldeans made advances in astronomy by using a mixture of science and religion to interpret natural phenomenaD. In the 6th century B.C.E., Cyrus the great laid the foundations of the Persian (Achaemenid) Empire through a combination of military strength and relative cultural toleranceE. The appointment of Sargon’s daughter Enheduanna to the office of high priestess of the Sumerian Moon God and his wife is not only an example of syncretism but also, an indication of the increasing opportunities of upward social mobility for all Mesopotamian women

19. All of the following are true about slavery in Mesopotamia EXCEPT (you are looking for the WRONG answer)A. Once a person became a slave, he or she would never be able to regain his/her freedomB. Slaves had vicarious status, and some slaves served their masters in the prominent administrative positionsC. Individuals could voluntarily sell themselves or their children into slavery to escape starvation or pay off debtsD. Slaves could have families and earn their own money

18. At the end of his quest, the hero-king Gilgamesh finally understood the universal limits of human existence and brought this knowledge to his subjects. This fundamental truth can be summarized in one of the following Mesopotamian verses:A. “Ishtar, the sweet-voiced Queen of Heaven, cried: ‘I commanded wars to destroy the people, but are they not my people, for I brought them forth?’”B. Utnapishtem said to his wife: “All men are deceivers…”C. “You [Gilgamesh] you will never find life for which you are looking…fill your belly with good things…cherish the little child that holds your hand…make your wife happy in your embrace…for this too is the lot of man…”D. “You are wise, Gilgamesh, and now you have become like a god…”

15. It would be INCORRECT (you are looking for the WRONG answer) to state that in ancient civilizations THEOCRACY and PATRIARCHY involved:A. The basic premise that inequality and hierarchy are divinely-ordained, natural components of well-ordered statesB. Warfare as an essential means of acquisition of wealth and power that enhanced the prestige of a male warrior classC. Considering women as a family resource because of their fundamental role in producing free labor and legitimate heirs who will inherit family propertyD. The idea that kings, as divinely-appointed rulers, can completely ignore and disregard religious precepts, social customs, and cultural traditions

9. It would be INCORRECT (you are looking for the WRONG answer) to state that the:A. Secondary sources can function as primary sourcesB. Venus figurines, cave paintings, tools, and pottery belong to the category of artifacts and realia which are important primary sourcesC. Primary sources are created by witnesses or recorders with first-hand experience of the events or conditions being documented.D. An abundance of primary and secondary sources provides historians with complete understanding of the reasons for the transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary farming

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