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QUESTION

The layer of tissue that anchors the heart to the diaphragm and sternum, is fused to the blood vessels entering and leaving the heart, and that prevents overstretching of the heart is the:

MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

2)         The layer of tissue that anchors the heart to the diaphragm and sternum, is fused to the blood vessels entering and leaving the heart, and that prevents overstretching of the heart is the:

A)  mediastinum.                                

B)  fibrous pericardium.

C)  parietal layer of the serous pericardium.

D)  visceral layer of the serous pericardium.

Answer:

Topic: PERICARDIUM

4)         The _____ is an external feature of the heart that is located between atria and ventricles.

A)  fossa ovalis

            B)  foramen ovale

C)  coronary sulcus

            D)  interventricular sulcus

Answer:

Topic: CHAMBERS OF THE HEART

6)         Which of the following vessels deliver blood to the right atrium?

1. superior vena cava

2. inferior vena cava

3. pulmonary veins

4. coronary sinus

5. pulmonary arteries

A)  1, 2, 3, 4                B)  1, 4, 5                    C)  1, 2, 4                    D)  2, 3

Answer:

Topic: CHAMBERS OF THE HEART

7)         Which of the following vessels carries blood away from the heart?

A)  coronary sinus                               B)  pulmonary vein

C)  inferior vena cava                          D)  pulmonary artery

Answer:

Topic: CHAMBERS OF THE HEART

8)         There are four sets of valves in the heart:

1. bicuspid

2. tricuspid

3. pulmonary semilunar

4. aortic semilunar

What is the correct order in which blood flows through these valves, starting in the right atrium?

A)  1, 4, 2, 3                B)  1, 3, 2, 4                C)  2, 3, 1, 4                D)  2, 4, 1, 3

Answer:

Topic: VALVES OF THE HEART

9)         The AV valve in the left side of the heart is known as the:

A)  bicuspid                                         B)  pulmonary semilunar.

C)  tricuspid.                                        D)  aortic semilunar.

Answer:

Topic: VALVES OF THE HEART

10)       Which of the following pairs of terms is most closely matched?

A)  bicuspid valve; oxygenated blood

B)  tricuspid valve; deoxygenated blood

C)  pulmonary semilunar valve; deoxygenated blood

D)  all of the above pairs are correctly matched

Answer:

Topic: VALVES OF THE HEART

14)       A vascular sinus, such as the coronary sinus, is best described as:

A)  a large thin-walled vein.

B)  a large thin-walled artery.

C)  a connection between blood vessels that allows for multiple routes of blood flow.

D)  blood-filled connective tissue.

Answer:

Topic: CORONARY CIRCULATION

16)       The SA node, or pacemaker, of the heart:

A)  is located on the anterior wall of the right atrium.

B)  is located on the anterior wall of the left atrium.

C)  generates action potentials at a faster rate than other regions of the conduction system.

D)  generates action potentials at the same rate as other regions of the conduction system.

Answer:

Topic: CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART

17)       Which condition of the heart is most likely to contribute to “pulmonary hypertension” (increased blood pressure in the pulmonary circuit)?

  1. mitral valve stenosis (narrowing)
  2. tricuspid valve stenosis
  3. patent (open) ductus arteriosus
  4. increased number of trabeculae carnae

Answer:

Topic: CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

18)       Increased or decreased length of chordae tendinae (e.g. due to some cardiac pathology) will effect:

  1. opening of the tricuspid valve
  2. closure of the mitral valve
  3. opening of the pulmonary valve
  4. closure of the aortic valve

Answer:

Topic: STRUCTURE OF THE HEART

20)       An adult heart with a patent (open) foramen ovale would demonstrate a “hole” or opening between which two heart chambers?

  1. right ventricle and left ventricle (interventricular defect)
  2. right atrium and left atrium (interatrial defect)
  3. right atrium and right ventricle (right AV orifice)
  4. left atrium and left ventricle (left AV orifice)

Answer:

Topic: DEVELOPMENTAL ANATOMY OF THE HEART

TRUE/FALSE.  Write "T" if the statement is true and "F" if the statement is false.

21)       An occlusion (blockage) in the left coronary artery will restrict a large amount of blood flow to the sinoatrial node. 

Answer:

Topic: CORONARY CIRCULATION

22)       Pericardial fluid is located in a space external to the visceral pericardium.

Answer:

Topic: PERICARDIUM

25)       The fossa ovalis is a thin spot or depression in the interatrial septum.

Answer:

Topic: CHAMBERS OF THE HEART

26)       The coronary sinus carries oxygenated blood.

Answer:

Topic: CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

27)       The pulmonary veins carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

Answer:

Topic: CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

28)       The coronary arteries carry oxygenated blood to the myocardium.

Answer:

Topic: CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

29)       The tricuspid valve is located at the right atrioventricular opening.

Answer:

Topic: VALVES OF THE HEART

30)       Chordae tendineae assist the cusps of the semilunar valves in preventing backflow of blood.

Answer:

Topic: VALVES OF THE HEART

34)       Cardiac contractions depend upon signals from the autonomic nervous system.

Answer:

Topic: CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART

35)       Heart rate is normally altered by the effects of autonomic nervous stimulation or hormones such as thyroid hormone and epinephrine.

Answer:

Topic: CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART

36)       The heart first begins to develop as two endothelial tubes that unite to form the primitive heart tube.

Answer:

Topic: DEVELOPMENTAL ANATOMY OF THE HEART

ESSAY.  Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

37)       Surface projection refers to outlining the shape and location of an organ using landmarks on the surface of the organ body.  Describe the surface projection of the heart.

Answer: 1. superior right point: 3 cm to the right of the midline, at the superior border of the third right costal cartilage

2. superior left point: 3 cm to the left of the midline, at the inferior border of the second left costal cartilage

(A line connecting these two points corresponds to the base of the heart.)

3. inferior left point: 9 cm to the left of the midline, in the fifth left intercostal space. This corresponds to the apex of the heart.

(A line connecting the superior and inferior left points corresponds to the left border of the heart.)

4. inferior right point: 3 cm to the right of the midline, at the superior border of the sixth right costal cartilage

(A line connecting the inferior left and right points corresponds to the inferior surface of the heart.  A line connecting the inferior and superior right points corresponds to the right border of the heart.)

Topic: LOCATION AND SURFACE PROJECTION OF THE HEART

38)       Trace the path of a drop of blood from the time it enters the heart via the superior vena cava until it is in the arch of the aorta.

Answer: The route described should contain, in order, the following: SVC, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary artery, (capillaries in) lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle, ascending aorta, arch of aorta.

Topic: CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

39)       State three functions of the skeleton of the heart.

Answer: The functions are valve and muscle attachment, prevention of overstretching of the valves, and electrical insulation between the atria and ventricles.

Topic: SKELETON OF THE HEART

41)       Describe the location and the function of each portion of the conduction system during one cardiac cycle (one complete heart contraction).

Answer: See the list of conduction system components and the description of the spread of excitation on p. 403.

Topic: CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART

SHORT ANSWER.  Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

43)       The inferior left point of the heart is the surface projection of the _____ of the heart, and is located in the fifth left intercostal space, 9 cm to the left of the midline.

Answer: pex

Topic: LOCATION AND SURFACE PROJECTION OF THE HEART

44)       The study of the heart and heart disease is called _____.

Answer: ardiology

Topic: INTRODUCTION

45)       The pericardial cavity is found between the epicardium and the _____ layer of the serous pericardium.

Answer: parietal

Topic: PERICARDIUM

47)       The anterior and posterior interventricular sulci are external features that mark the location of the _____ inside the heart.

Answer: interventricular septum

Topic: CHAMBERS OF THE HEART

48)       AV valve cusps are connected by strong cords called _____ to _____ muscles on the walls of the ventricles.

Answer: hordae tendineae, papillary

Topic: VALVES OF THE HEART

49)       The _____ branch is the artery located in the coronary sulcus.

Answer: ircumflex

Topic: CORONARY CIRCULATION

52)       The contraction phase of a chamber of the heart is referred to as _____.

Answer: systole

Topic: CARDIAC CYCLE

MATCHING.  Choose the item in Column 2 that best matches each item in Column 1.

Match the layers of the heart wall in Column 1 with their description in Column 2.

54)       Column 1: myocardium

Column 2: thickest layer, muscular

 Answer: thickest layer, muscular

Topic: HEART WALL

55)       Column 1: endocardium

Column 2: continuous with the lining of the blood vessels

Answer: ontinuous with the lining of the blood vessels

Topic: HEART WALL

56)       Column 1: endocardium

Column 2: covers the valves

Answer: overs the valves

Topic: HEART WALL

57)       Column 1: epicardium

Column 2: layer next to pericardial cavity

Answer: layer next to pericardial cavity

Topic: HEART WALL

Match the components of the conduction system of the heart in Column 1 with the descriptions in Column 2.

58)       Column 1: sinoatrial node

Column 2: pacemaker

Answer: pacemaker

Topic: CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART

59)       Column 1: sinoatrial node

Column 2: sends wave of depolarization throughout atria

Answer: sends wave of depolarization throughout atria

Topic: CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART

60)       Column 1: atrioventricular node

Column 2: located in the interatrial septum

Answer: located in the interatrial septum

Topic: CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART

62)       Column 1: bundle branches

Column 2: carry depolarization wave toward apex of heart

Answer: arry depolarization wave toward apex of heart

Topic: CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART

63)       Column 1: conduction myofibers

Column 2: cause actual stimulation of cardiac muscle fibers in the ventricles

Answer: ause actual stimulation of cardiac muscle fibers in the ventricles

Topic: CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART

Match the vessels in Column 1 with their descriptions in Column 2.

64)       Column 1: pulmonary trunk

Column 2: carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart

Foil: carries deoxygenated blood toward the heart

Answer: arries deoxygenated blood away from the heart

Topic: CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

65)       Column 1: aorta

Column 2: carries oxygenated blood away from the heart

Answer: arries oxygenated blood away from the heart

Topic: CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

66)       Column 1: pulmonary vein

Column 2: carries oxygenated blood toward the heart

Answer: arries oxygenated blood toward the heart

Topic: CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

67)       Column 1: pulmonary vein

Column 2: enters left atrium

Foil: enters right atrium

Answer: nters left atrium

Topic: CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

68)       Column 1: pulmonary trunk

Column 2: connected to right ventricle

Answer: onnected to right ventricle

Topic: CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

69)       Column 1: aorta

Column 2: connected to left ventricle

Answer: onnected to left ventricle

Topic: CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

Match the ventricles of the heart in Column 1 with their descriptions in Column 2.

70)       Column 1: right ventricle

Column 2: receives deoxygenated blood

Answer: receives deoxygenated blood

Topic: CHAMBERS OF THE HEART

71)       Column 1: left ventricle

Column 2: pumps blood into the aorta

Answer: pumps blood into the aorta

Topic: CHAMBERS OF THE HEART

72)       Column 1: left ventricle

Column 2: thicker myocardium

 Answer: thicker myocardium

Topic: CHAMBERS OF THE HEART

73)       Column 1: right ventricle

Column 2: pumps blood to the lungs

Answer: pumps blood to the lungs

Topic: CHAMBERS OF THE HEART

74)       Column 1: left ventricle

Column 2: entrance into this ventricle is guarded by the bicuspid valve

Answer: ntrance into this ventricle is guarded by the bicuspid valve

Topic: CHAMBERS OF THE HEART

75)       Column 1: right ventricle

Column 2: pumps blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve

 Answer: pumps blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve

Topic: CHAMBERS OF THE HEART

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****** ** *** HEART SHORT ****** ***** the **** ** ****** **** **** ********* **** ********* or ******* *** question 43) *** ******** left ***** ** the ***** is *** surface projection ** *** _____ ** *** ***** and is located ** *** ***** **** *********** space * ** ** *** **** of the midlineAnswer: ********** ******** *** ******* ********** ** *** ******** The ***** ** the ***** *** ***** disease is called ************ **************** INTRODUCTION 45) The *********** cavity ** ***** ******* *** ********** *** *** _____ ***** ** *** ****** ****************** ************** **************** *** ******** *** ********* interventricular ***** are ******** ******** **** **** *** ******** ** the ***** ****** *** heartAnswer: **************** ************ ******** ** *** ********** ** ***** ***** *** connected ** strong ***** ****** ***** ** _____ muscles ** *** ***** ** *** ***************** ******* ********* papillaryTopic: VALVES ** *** HEART 49) The ***** ****** is the ****** ******* ** 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blood away **** the *********** *********** OF BLOOD 65) ****** ** aortaColumn ** ******* oxygenated ***** **** **** the ************ ******* ********** ***** **** from *** *********** *********** OF BLOOD 66) ****** ** pulmonary ********** ** ******* ********** ***** toward *** ************ ******* ********** ***** ****** the *********** *********** ** BLOOD 67) ****** 1: ********* veinColumn ** ****** left *********** enters ***** ************* ****** **** atriumTopic: CIRCULATION ** BLOOD 68) ****** ** ********* *********** ** ********* ** right ventricleAnswer: ********* ** right *************** *********** OF ********** Column 1: *********** 2: ********* ** **** **************** ********* ** **** *************** CIRCULATION OF ************ *** ********** of *** ***** ** ****** * with ***** descriptions in ****** ****** ****** ** ***** *************** ** receives deoxygenated bloodAnswer: ******** ************ bloodTopic: ******** ** THE ********** ****** 1: left ventricleColumn ** 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