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QUESTION

# Why is the ionization energy of neon higher than sodium in regards of periodicity?

See explanation.

When comparing the ionization energies of two we should consider four main factors:

1. Distance from nucleus.
2. Effective nuclear charge.
3. Shielding effect.
4. Electron-electron repulsion.

Consider the for: ""_11Na: 1s^(2)2s^(2)2p^(6)3s^(1) " " " " " " " " " """_10Ne: 1s^(2)2s^(2)2p^(6) " " "

When looking at the electron configurations of Na and Ne we can notice that the first ionization energy of sodium is less than that of Neon for the following reasons:

1. Distance from nucleus: The electron removed from sodium is being removed from a higher energy level n=3 than that of Neon n=2.
2. Effective nuclear charge : Even though sodium's nuclear charge is +11 and that of Neon is +10, however, due to the distance from the nucleus, the nuclear charge effect is very minimal in this case.
3. Shielding effect: The electron removed from sodium is shielded from the attraction of the nucleus by 10" electrons" however, the electron removed from Neon is shielded by 2" electrons" only.
4. Electron-electron repulsion: The electron repulsion effect is usually considered when the electrons removed are at the same distance from the nucleus and they are subjected to a similar nuclear charge and shielding effect. In this case, the electron-electron repulsion effect is minimal.
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