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Write a 2 page essay on International Conflicts.International Conflicts.Bernath, Holland, and Martin (2002) deal with the issue of Human Rights and Human Rights Education in the context of internat

Write a 2 page essay on International Conflicts.

International Conflicts


Bernath, Holland, and Martin (2002) deal with the issue of Human Rights and Human Rights Education in the context of international conflict resolution. There is a real need of implementing Human Rights principles in conflict and post-conflict societies in order to provide necessary help in the peace-building process.

One of the authors’ key points is the fact that Human Rights Education has to be undertaken in conflict and post-conflict societies as a necessary element in the process of peace-building. Besides that ‘The integration of human rights must go beyond advocacy, publicity and documentation but lead to a culture of human rights that is systematic and integrated’ (Bernath, Holland, & Martin, 2002). Another key point is that teachers and Human Rights activists point out that ‘each human being has rights and that the authorities are obliged to recognize and protect them’ (Bernath, Holland, & Martin, 2002). On the other hand, the cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral dimensions of Human Rights Education have to be stressed in order to make it much more effective. It is essential the integration of international Human Rights standards and practices into peoples' daily lives.

The researchers present their findings with clear-cut arguments in favor of the integration of Human Rights Education in conflict and post-conflict societies addressing its benefits for building peaceful and just societies. Their insights can be applied in any society as a necessary resource for helping policy-makers in the process of emphasizing Human Rights Education in international conflict resolution initiatives.

Race Conflicts

After defining the concept of racial profiling, Kennedy (2002) argues that there is a contradiction among opponents of racial profiling who are in favor of affirmative action since there is also some level of discrimination in affirmative action. The same contradiction is evident in supporters of racial profiling who are opposed to affirmative action.

One of the author’s key points is the definition of racial profiling as ‘the policy or practice of using race as a factor in selecting whom to place under special surveillance’ (Kennedy, 2002). After pointing out the discrimatory nature of racial profiling, Kennedy (2002) states that any kind of discrimination ‘backed by state power’ is ‘presumptively illicit’ under U.S. laws. Opponents of this policy argue that there is not enough rigorous empirical evidence to support the idea that racial profiling is an effective tool for law enforcement. At the same time, many supporters of racial profiling are against the policy of affirmative action since this is also a discriminatory practice. There are obvious contradictions around these issues because many of the opponents of racial profiling are vocal supporters of affirmative action ‘in deciding whom to admit to college or to select for a job’ (Kennedy, 2002).

The author considers that this controversy is good for society. Both racial profiling and affirmative action are discriminatory in nature. There is not an easy answer for this debate. Indeed, those policies can be assumed as necessary evils since they offer partial solutions to race-related issues.


Bernath, T., Holland, T., and Martin, P. (2002, Fall). How can human rights education contribute to international peace-building? Conflict Resolution Journal (CRJ), School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from

Kennedy, R. (2002, April). ‘Racial profiling, meet your alter ego: affirmative action. Blind spot.’ In The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved November 18, 2008, from

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