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After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.
The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:
- is between 900 and 1200 words in length;
- includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;
- qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);
- withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;
- is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;
- is written primarily in third-person;
- includes a References page;
- has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.
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Impacts of Genetic Engineering in Agriculture
Genetically modified organisms are substances whose genes get altered through genetic engineering. The process gets done with the aid of adding proteins and chemicals into the genes of the organism. Genetic engineering has been applied in both crop production and animal rearing and led to several impacts both good and bad. Different people have divergent views concerning these GMOs.
There are several advantages associated with GMOs in agriculture. First and foremost is that the crops grown are modified in such a way that they can easily resist pests meaning that the output will not be affected, and also the cost of purchasing pesticides will be foregone. Additionally, genetically modified agricultural products are adamant towards the harsh climatic conditions. In the event of lack of rain or severe rain, these crops can give a right out- put.
The out- put off these plants is assured to be large as they fail to be affected by both pests and adverse climatic conditions. Food security gets guaranteed at all times. GMO crops and animals are also well known for requiring fewer farm implements such as chemicals and time this reduces their cost of production to the farmers. Farmer’s income is thus improved day by day and also the country’s per capita income too. World's population grows at an alarming rate. Ensuring sufficient food supply to this growing population will mean constant deforestation to create more land space for farming. However, with genetically modified engineering crops and animals at hand, we are assured of more food production with less deforestation (Godfray et al., 2010). Eventually, deforestation gets decreased, and at the same time, global warming minimized.
Since genetically modified foods are not 100% natural, there is the need to conduct thorough testing before the release of such products. There has been a case where a product has killed people and affects much more because of not testing it before it’s discharged into the market. These products are also not safe to eat at all. Scientific research has proven that some foods containing GMOs are not safe for some species including human beings causing illness and eventually death.
Scientists discovered a new method of enhancing food production through altering the genetic make- up of the genes making up these crops through a process known as genetic engineering. The products of this process are known as genetically modified organisms. There are advantages and disadvantages of the particular kind of agricultural commodities.
One advantage is that these crops are very resistant to the worst climatic conditions possible. Additionally, these crops cannot be attacked by any pest at all. Therefore the product expected is usually to the maximum. Food security and farmers income are improved. The amount of food produced is high. With increased production and decreased the cost of pesticides the farmer's income is also increased thus his life standards also increased. As the law of supply and demand stands increased food supply due to the use of genetically modified crops and animals, it means that the price of food stuff will decrease. New plants and animals have to get established. A good example was a baby ship called Dolly that got cloned. The opposition against genetically modified foods is brought about by the uncertainties that people have developed towards it. One is that upon taking these foods, one generates antibiotic factors within their bodies. These antibiotics make our bodies less efficient towards medication. To other people upon adopting these foods, they develop chronic allergic reactions especially children foods and supplements.
Genetically modified foods have never been 100% safe for human consumption and other species too. Most of these products may cause illness or death to plants, animals or even people. A thorough check should always be conducted to ensure the safety of the product before its release to the market. The taste of genetically modified foods is frequently poor and unpleasant. Attributed to the proteins and chemicals added to the genes of the organism during genetic engineering. Another serious disadvantage is that of transferring of genes. A pest-resistant gene may be transferred and combined with weed to create a super weed that cannot be affected by pesticides (Jouanin et al., 1998).
Genetically modified organisms have been used in agriculture in the recent years to boost crop production. These crops have a unique genetic make-up that makes them from natural cultivation. Biotechnology has been applied to alter their cell structure through genetic engineering. People have had different points of view concerning GMOs. There are those who believe GMOs is the final solution to the terrifying food security issue. Genetically modified crops are supposed to be pest resistance. These plants get to have a very active resistance to adverse weather conditions meaning that upon growing them one is assured of a good yield.
Since there is no effect of pests on the crops and the crops cannot succumb to adverse weather condition there is an assurance of a high yield, and this guarantees food security to the world especially in the third world nations. The farmer's cost of production gets reduced, and hence his income by all means possible is improved. Deforestation is minimized with GMOs in agriculture since with a small piece of land one can harvest an enormous produce (Hertel, 2011). Without genetically modified organisms, more land gets cleared for farming meaning that there will be more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere thus global warming enhanced. We should have it in mind that global warming has posed to me one of the chief challenges facing humanity today. Food has become affordable to many since the supply of food is high due to the high yields associated with genetic engineering making the price fall. Additionally is that with genetic engineering, scientists have been able to discover new types of plants and crops.An example is a particular kind of beans that grows naturally.
Despite their positive impacts, these foods once were taken make one develop their antibiotic makers within the body. These antibiotics are responsible for most people not being productive to medication (Payne, Gwynn, Holmes & Pompliano, 2007) Most children also tend to produce allergic reactions once they take these foods. Another disadvantage is that all species of living organisms be it animals, plants or human beings one is always affected by some of these products. They frequently cause severe illnesses and at times death. The product should thoroughly test before its release, or else it may cause deaths to the people.
The natural taste typically lacks in genetically modified crops, and this is mainly due to the process of genetic engineering that alters the cell structure of cultivation. Another possible danger is where some genes get transferred from one species to another. Scientists argue that in the event a pesticide-resistant gene is transferred and mixes up with a weed they may for a complex pesticide resistant weed that cannot get easily killed.
There has always been a furious debate concerning the well -being of genetically modified foods. One point of concern is that these foods have the potential of creating their antibiotic makers. The antibiotics that have found their way into our bodies will make the body not to cooperate fully with medication in case of illness. Critics should not only focus on the risk on genetic heritage they should seek to look at the incredible impacts coupled with the various technological advances. Moreover, leading to more advancement in helping the human race through invitro fertilization. Genetic engineering brings with it better than harm and should need embracement.
YOU MUST USE THESE REFERENCES!!!!!
Godfray, H. C. J., Beddington, J. R., Crute, I. R., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J. F., ... & Toulmin, C. (2010). Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science, 327(5967), 812-818.
Hertel, T. W. (2011). The global supply and demand for agricultural land in 2050: A perfect storm in the making?. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 93(2), 259-275.
Jouanin, L., Bonadé-Bottino, M., Girard, C., Morrot, G., & Giband, M. (1998). Transgenic plants for insect resistance. Plant Science, 131(1), 1-11.
Payne, D. J., Gwynn, M. N., Holmes, D. J., & Pompliano, D. L. (2007). Drugs for bad bugs: confronting the challenges of antibacterial discovery. Nature reviews Drug discovery, 6(1), 29-40.