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# Anhmpoganic Natural Long-lived greenhouse gases Ozone Stratospheric water vapour from CH' Surface albedo Linear commits Radiative Forcing Components

1. Calculate the best estimate of the **total** radiative forcing from the provided figure of individual radiative forcings from the IPCC

2. Calculate the range of possible values for the total radiative forcing.

3. What conclusions does the total radiative forcing tell you about how the climate has changed?

4. How does the range of values (or uncertainties) affect the above conclusions?