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South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide A+ work South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide A+ work South University NSG5003 Final Exam Stu

South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide A+ work

South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide 

South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide A+ work

South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide 

South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide A+ work

South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide 

South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide A+ work

South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide 

South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide A+ work

South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide 

South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide A+ work

South University NSG5003 Final Exam Study Guide 

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******* ***** Exam ***** Guide1 **** ******** ******* * ******* division ***** *********** * *********** ********* -apoptosis– ********** **** death ** ********* -atrophy– ******** ** ********* ** **** **** * **** ****** ** ******** ****** the heart ********* *** ****** *** the ******* Pathologic ******* occurs with ***** development· Physiologic ******* ****** ** * ****** of ********* in workload *** pressure ***** ****** nutrition ******** *********** *** ******* stimulation2 ****** ******************* ** ******* ***** with ***** chills *** ***** or ***** pain ******** ************** ** * *** including ********* dysuria and costovertebral tenderness may ******* ******** ***** *** ******** ***** adults may **** *********** symptoms **** as low-grade ***** *** ******* ************* acute ************** ******** **** ** * ** 3 weeks ** ********************** ********** ******* Follow-up ***** ******** *** obtained at 1 *** * ***** after ********* ** ******** recur3 Kidney ********** *** ***** functions * *** cushion of *** *** *** position ** the ****** between *** ********* organs *** ******* ** *** back protect ** **** ****** * ****** *********** **** hilum) ** where *** ***** ***** ******* ****** ********* ******* *** ****** ***** and **** *** ****** The ***** layer ** the kidney ** ****** *** cortex *** ******** *** ** the ********* most ** the ******** tubules *** **** ******** of *** ****** tubule *** medulla ***** *** inner **** ** *** ****** and ******** of regions ****** *** ******** ***** ******* ****** from *** cortex down ******* *** renal ******** *** ****** of the ******** ******* **** ***** ******* (cup-shaped ********* **** ***** ** **** ***** calyces *** ***** ******* ******* urine **** *** ********** ***** through *** ***** ******* *** major calyces **** ** form *** ***** pelvis which ******** **** *** ******** *** of the ****** *** ***** of *** calyces ****** *** ****** are ***** **** ********** ***** *** ******* smooth ****** ***** **** ******** ** **** ***** to the ******* The ********** **** ** *** ****** ** the **** **** lobe ** ******** ** * ******* *** the ********* cortex On ******* ***** *** ** ***** in **** kidney4 *********** ** ******** chemical ******* can **** ** ********** ** ********* ************ *** ********* *********** of *** ****** membrane; ********* ** cessation ** cellular metabolism; lack ** ******* ********** ****** to lysosomal ********* **** ******* ** destructive ******* **** *** cytoplasm; ********* *********** of ******** *********** cellular ***** (exhibited by ******* ********* *** ************ ** the **** cell ** cellular ********** ** the ***** inflammatory response5 Hormones ********** ********** a ************* *********** is the **** potent ** *** ********* ********* ****************** *** **** ** ******** ****** by ********** *** ******** ** *** ****** **** ** the ********** ***** ** *** ****************** ********* ************* ****** by acting ** ****** nephron epithelial ***** ** ******** ****** ************ *** ********* *** hydrogen excretion52 **** ***** effect ***** ** ******* ** * ***** ***** ******* ** *********** include *********** ** cardiac ****** *********** *********** ** ectopic *********** ******** ******* secondary ******* pacemakers ** the ventricles stiffening ** ***** ******* **** increased ******** resistance and ********* ************* **************** ***** ******* ********** *** ** secreted when plasma ********** increases ** circulating ***** ****** ********* *** blood ******** ****** ************* most ****** of the ********* ********* *************** The secretion ** ******** ** regulated primarily by *** ************ and *** anterior ********* ****** -estrogen- ***** ** ******* ***** ** ******* **** ******** exerting * calming ****** ****** ********* ********** Estrogen stimulates *** *** **** ** addition *** **** ************** ** ******* ** women **** **** ** men63Estrogen ******** ********** the CRH **** ******** *** *** central ************* **************** ****** ***** *** help explain ***** ********* ****** **************** ********* ** affective ******* *** ****** ********* mood ****** and vulnerability ** ********** *** inflammatory ******* *** of ***** ****** ********* concentration fluctuationse ********* ******* ** * ******* that ** produced *** ******** mainly ** *** ******* **** ***** ******* **** ******** ** *** ***** ********* pancreas *** ************ *** ******** ********* ** ** ****** the ********* ********** because ** ********** ******** ********* food intake and ******** *** *********** ************ ** ****** ******* increases **** ****** ** ** ** **** ** circulates ** *** *********** *** acts ** the ************ ** **** ** *** ***** ******* in *** control ** appetite ******* *** also **** ***** to *** ** ******* of *** ***** involved ** ****** ********** **** ** the ******** ******* also ********** the ******* of growth ******* **** *** ********* ***** which ****** ******* ****** ****** down *** ****** and causes the ******** of muscle ******* **** *** ********** ******* on *** cardiovascular system *** ***** a role ** the control of ******* ******* ********* ** food intake6 Protein *** * production metabolism ******* ***** Electrolytes * ********* ************ ************ *********** ********** ********** ******** Immunology A ******* multimolecular ******** ****** **** ** 25 ********* proteins **** self-assemble ** cell ******** *********** ** concert **** *** specific immune ******* ** mediate host ********* *** ************** ******** *** **** ** ***** *** the ******* target **** ** *** polymerization ** C9 on *** ******* ***** ***** * ************* ********** that *********** *** ****** of **** **** ***** *** ****** ********* ******* * ********* is a ********** ***** **** ****** ********* ***** ************ of the ***** ****** ***** and ******** ** the postcapillary ******* both of ***** ****** in ********* blood **** into the **************** ********* also causes increased ******** permeability ********* from retraction ** *********** ***** ****** *** capillaries10 *********** ************ *** *********** are ******* **** ******* or inhibit secretion of *********** and **** regulate ****** *** ***** ******* Renin ********** the ********* of *********** I ** ******** polypeptide ********************** ****** ***** in ********* ******* converts *********** * ** *********** ** *********** ** *** two major ********** it causes **************** ***** ******** ******** ***** ******** and ** stimulates the ********* ** *********** *********** ******** ****** and water reabsorption ** *** ******** ******* ** *** ******* thus ********** ****** blood volume *** ***** ******** *********** **** stimulates ********* **** ********* ********** ** potassium by *** ****** tubule of *** ****** ******** ********* ************** in *** *** *** restoration of ****** ****** blood volume *** ***** ********* **** ******** ******* release ** ******* *********** ******* * ******** regulation ** sodium ******* ** mediated ** *********** a mineralocorticoid (steroid) *********** and ******** **** *** adrenal ****** ** the *** product ** *** renin-angiotensin-aldosterone ******** *************** ***** their Functionsa ******** common *** ******** compliment cross ******** ******* & secondary ****** ******** *************** -IgE ********* responses& ******* again ********* the ***** ************ ** *** of *** immunoglobulin ******* ** *** ************ -IgM- ***** ******** produced during the ******* ** primary ******** ** ******* IgM ** *********** ***** ** ******** **** *** its ********* *** ** increased ** a ******** ** infection ** ****** -IgA – *** ** ***** ** ***** ********* *** saliva13 **** *********** ********** *** ******** hypothalamus = temperature ****************** * ***** pain * thalamus cerebral ****** *** brain ****** Heat ****** *** heat ************** **** ****** ** * life-threatening ********* ********** **** high ************* ************ *** ******** **** body *********** ***** as a ****** ** thermoregulatory ******** ********** * ****** temperature of 106° * ***** ** ** ********** * **************** **** Generalized ********** ************ and decreased *********** blood volume *** *********** ** **** *** ***** ****** ******** ******** ******** *** ****** **** cardiovascular ********** **** ********** ****** **** sufficient **** *** ***** **** ******* in ***************** *********** ****** secondary to ***** **** (hypovolemia) *** *** ********** feels **** ** nauseated *** *** ******** ******** Collapsing ******* **** a ******* ** *** ************** ****** ** ********** *** *********** Heat ********** ** probably *** **** ****** ************ injury15 ****** ************ ****** – ** ***** MenopauseA ****** ** ******* *** ******* ** influence *** *** of ********* ********* genetics socioeconomic ****** **** parity **** ************* *** *** ********* such as smoking ** ****** Perimenopause: **** is *** ************ period between ************ *** *************** years * transition lasting * to 8 ******** Five ** ** ***** ****** ********* ************* 90% ** ***** **** **** ** ******* *********** ** ********* *** ******* ** ********* **** Changes ** ******** ***** ****** **** time ********* *********** ****** estradiol ****** ********* ************ ****** *** ****** ********* ***** ****** phase ** *********** cycles) *** a ********* ovarian-pituitary-hypothalamic ******** ************ **** ****** ** ****** A decrease ** *** *********** ** *** ****** tissue ********* and *** *********** ** ************** ******** commonly *** *********** ******** ******* ***** **** * lengthening ** *** ********* ***** ***** ********** with *********** ****** ************* ** irregular ********* uniformly precedes menopause53 *** ************* experience ****** among women *** **** cycle ** ***** in *** same woman ********* ****** ****** in *** normal ** ******** ******** range until ***** * **** ****** ******************** ******** ********* in utero the ****** ** ********* steadily ********* through ********** maturation *** ******* ******** ** *** **** *** ** to ** ***** ****** ************ ****** **** ******* accelerates ***** *** ****** ** ********* ** ********** **** accelerated loss ********** **** ********* *** *********** ******* and ********** ** ****** *** * decrease ** ******* ********* *** *********** seems ** ********** ********** **** ********* inhibin ********** ******** ******** estradiol ****** *** ********** *************** ******* The ovarian ******** to high FSH recruits increasing ******* of ********** these ********* **** ********* ******* **** * net effect ** irregular ********* ***** ************ ****** depleted ******** ******* *** *********** *** ovaries ***** to ******** ** **** ****** *** 30; **** ******** accelerates ***** *** ***** Of *** ****** ********* present ** the onset ** puberty the number ******** to ************* **** **** *********** ******** transmitted ************************ ** STIs ******* ****** ************ ******* infertility ******* ********* ******* ****** **** ******** ********* *** ********* *** genital cancersa Gonorrheais ****** ******************************* ***** are ************** of the **************** *********** Transmission of ********** infection ********* ******** contact of ********** ********* ******** **** ** ****** ****** sexual **** ** **** intercourse * ******** ***** also *** transmit ********* to *** ***** Treatment *** ********* is ******** **** ********* ******* ** ******* ********** resistance ** ********* antibiotics *** ******** ** ******** *** will have ****** ***** ** painful ********* ** ******** penile ********* or **** ****** * week ** *************** ****** ******** encourage **** men ** ********* ********* ** **** ****************** **** men have ****** ********* ** ******** ******* *** pruritus) **** *** ** ** 10% ***** **** ***** ** symptomsb ************ ********** ********* ******* * rare ******** ************ ****** ** *** spread ** ********* ******* the *********** ******** of **** **************** condition ******* * generalized rash *** ****** joint ***** Syphilis * ******* **** ***** *** ******** ************** *** **** well-known ********** ******* Stage * ******* syphilis—local ******** * sore orhard ******* ******** ** the **** ** ********** ***** --Stage ** ********* syphilis—systemic ******* ******** ******** ******** ********* low-grade ***** malaise **** ****** ********** ******** *********** ********** headache ***** pain *** **** ** mucous ******** ******* ** ************* *** ****** syphilis—silent infection ************ ******* ** ******** ************************ disease ****** ************** ******* *** neurosyphilis ***** ************** ** ******** syphilis *** quite **** ******* antibiotics can cure syphilisd ********* inguinale (donovanosis)is a ******* ************* destructive bacterial ********* ****** byCalymmatobacteriumgranulomatis recently reclassified ************ granulomatis *** ********** ****** ** ********* ********* is * ** ** days *** ******* lesion ** an ********* sharply ******* ******** subcutaneous nodule **** is often ******** *** accompanied ** itching ******* ***** ****** *** contain abundant *** ************* *********** ********** antibiotics have **** **** ************ ******** granulomatis ***** ******* *** be present ** ***** ********* vaginosis ***************** ****** *********** vaginitis; *********** ********** ************* *************** *************************** ******************* ********* but ** *** necessarily considered ** *** ** is ************* ** a **** **** *********** *** ********** ********* **** adheres ** the ******* walls but ** ***** ******* ****** to ***** **** *** ***** *** **** ******** used ********* *** ** ** a ****** of oral ************* ******** *** ** ***** daily *** * **** ** **** ******* gel once ***** *** 5 daysf Chlamydiais *** common **** ******************* *********** ******************* ****** *** chlamydia include *** ******* than *** ****************** ** the leading cause of ***** *********** in ***** * ************* susceptible ** *********** ******* ********** *********** ********* ******** ********** ******* for ******** *********** *** all sexual contacts; abstinence or *** of ******* during ********* and *** * **** after ********* ** *********** ************ is ***** * * ****** as * ****** dose or * ***** ****** ** **** doxycycline *** ** twice ****** ******* ****** ***** causes ******** (cold ****** is *** most common infectious ***** of ******* *********** ** *** ****** ****** ** ******** occur *** ********** may **** ***** (1 ** * *** ******** ********* ******* at *** **** of ********* usually ** *** labia ****** ********** ***** or ***** ******* 26-12) **** also *** appear ** the cervix ******** and ****** *** *** often ******* and ******** These ******* ******* last ***** ** ** ** **** The ******* ** HSV-1 *** ***** *** ***************** ** *** ***** *** ******** ************** ***** ********* ******* *** ********* and an ********** *** experience ***** ******* ******** *************** *** ******* ********* *********** ******* meningitis *** ********* also may ********* ******* HSV ********* There ** ** **** *** *** **** ******* ********** and viral suppression ********** Oral acyclovir ************ penciclovir *** *********** *** **** *** ******* *** ******** ********* and ** ******* *********** ********* *** * ****** safety profile *** pregnant *** nursing ***** *** there is ongoing ******** supporting the ****** of ************ ** ***** Human papillomavirus ************** ** *** **** common symptomatic ***** *** ** *** ****** ***************************** soft ************ ******* **** ** ******* brown ******** ******* **** *** occur ****** ** in clusters and *** ** broad ***** ** ************ *** ******** ** ****** ******* ****** Sometimes *** warts enlarge to **** **************** ****** on *** male ******** ***** ******** ******* ****** ***** ******* ** anus *** ** *** female ***** ******** ******** ****** ** **** Laryngeal papillomas *** ***** in ******* whose mothers had ******* ***** ** the time ** ***************** *** external genital ***** *** ********** ************** ************** ******* *************** therapies (podofilox imiquimod and *************** *** ********************* ********* ************ podophyllin resin trichloroacetic **** [TCA] ************** **** ***** and ******** ******* ******** ** **** ***** *** ******* ** *** clinic ***** *** BCA *********** ** ******** ******** ******* ** treatment ******* ** ******** of *** ****** ****** Surgical ******** ** the treatment for ********* warts ** ******** *** B: Hepatitis ** * ***** ********* that *** ** caused ** *** types ** ******** ********* A ********* B ********* * ********* * ********* * *** ********* G ************ ** *** *** ***** ******* needle puncture blood transfusion **** ** ********* ** *** **** and absorption ** ******* ******** ****** ******* **** ******** body ****** **** ** ***** cerebrospinal ***** synovial ***** ******* juices ******* ***** ***** *** ***** may **** *** ********* Most **************** ********** asymptomatic *** result in ********* ******** ******** of ********* ******* ******* **** ***** an *** antigen *** been *********** ** the blood *** * ** * ************** ******** characterized by ** erythematous **** ********* *************** *** ********* ******** of ********* **** *** ******* ********* ******** ****** vomiting headache ***** **** ***** ******** and ******** ***** enlargement with ********** ********* ******** ******* ******* persistent and ******* ****** ********* cirrhosis ************** carcinoma ******* ******* and ***** ** specific therapy ****** *** *** ********* ** ****** ********* consists of ********** care and ****** ** ********** ****** polycythemia thalassemia *** * ANEMIA:Strictly speakinganemiais * ********* ** *** ***** number of ************ ** *** circulating ***** ** a ******** ** *** ******* ** ******** ** ********** ******* ******** ****** from *** impaired *********** production *** ***** loss ****** ** ******** (3) ********* *********** *********** ** *** * *********** ** these three ******** ********** ****** (PA) the most ****** type of ************* ****** ** ****** by vitamin ************* ***** is often ********** with *** end stage ** **** * chronic ******** *********** or *********** ********** Folate ********** ****** * ****** ****** ***** ** ** ********* ******* *** *** and *** ********* ****** the ******** erythrocyte ******* *** coenzymes ******** for the ********* ** ******* *** purines ******** *** ******** *** *** ********** ** ************ ** methionine ********* ********** ** ******* ** ********** ******* cells undergoing ***** ****************************** ********** characterized ** ********** ***** erythrocytes that ******* abnormally reduced amounts ** *********** **** ********** ****** (IDA)is the **** common **** of ****** ********* occurring in **** ********** and developed ********* and ********* ** **** ** *** fifth of *** ***** *********** ************* ******* ******** a heterogeneous group ** ********* ************* ** ****** ** ******* ******** ****** by * ****** ** ************* **** ************* ** ************* ** the presence ** ****** ************ ****** the **** marrow5 ******** ****** (AA)is * ******** ********* characterized bypancytopenia * ********* ** ******* ** *** three ***** **** ***** ********* from ******* ** suppression of **** ****** ** produce adequate ******* ** ***** ****** ***************************** **** (also ***** as ******************** ** *** ** ******* ********* collectively known aschronic ****************** ************************ ** **** ***** ******* ********* ************** chronic idiopathic ************* chronic myeloid ******** ******* ************ ******** *** chronic eosinophilic ******** *** result **** ******** regulation of *** *********** ************* **** cells ****** ***** ********** ********* ******** **** ** ******** ****** ********** **** ********* **** and discomfortAn ******** ******** ** *** ****** ** red ***** cells and in ***** blood ****** confirms *** diagnosisTreatment ** ** ** *********** and ******** ****** minimizing the **** ** ********** *** preventing *********** ** ************* *** ***** leukemia **************** ******** *** **** **** **** ***** forms of treatment **** ************** for ** to ** ***** ** ****** ******* without proper ********* *** ** individuals **** PV die ****** 18 ****** ** the ***** ** ******* ********* THALASSEMIA:thalassemias *** ********* autosomal ********* ********* that cause ** impaired **** ** synthesis ** *** ** the *** *********** or β—of Hb A The disorder was namedthalassemia ***** ** ******* from *** Greek word forsea because ** *** ******* ********* ** ****** **** ******* **** *** ************* Sea **************** ** ***** ********* of *** ********* ***** is ****** ** defective is ********* among ****** ******** and **** ***** and ********* **** ********************* ****** mild ** ******** ********************** ********* anemia **** splenomegaly ****** ******** of *** **** *** *********** of the **** ****** ******* **** ********************* ******* *** asymptomatic ********************** ****** ******* fetalis *** ********* ************ ********** ***** *************** withthalassemiamajor ********* *** **** **** to thrive show poor development and ********** ************** ********** with *********** ******* caused ** anemiaTreatment ***** ************ **** ********* therapy *********** **** ****** cord ***** and **** **** *************** ** currently the **** cure **************** ************* Hypertensionis ********** ********* of ******** ******** blood pressureHypertensionis *** **** common primary ********* ** *** ****** ********************** * ** * ****** ******* **** ** ***** ** *** **************** **** increases to ****** *** thirds ** ***** older **** *** ** **** ******* associated **** *************************** *** family history *************** *** ********* **** (3) gender **** ******* than 55 *** ***** ***** **** ** years); *** ***** ***** (5) **** ******* ****** ******* (6) ******* *********** ********* mellitus); *** ********* ******** (8) obesity; *** ***** ******* ************ and **** *** dietary ****** ** potassium ******* *** magnesium ********************* *** result ** * *********** interaction ******* ******** *** *** *********** that ******** ******** **** ********* hypertension ** ****** ** an ********** ******* ******* **** ****** peripheral vascular ********** ** ******* ******************************** *** ***** ** ******** ***** ************************************ progressivehypertensionin ***** diastolic ******** ** ******* ******* **** *** ***** *** cause ************** Encephalopathy occurs ******* high ******** ******** renders the ******** ********** ********* ** ********** blood **** to *** ******** ********* beds20 ***** ******** ********* ***** ************ ****** ***** ******* **** ********* ******** fraction) *** ***** ****** ** ***** **** ******** heart ********** ***** causes ** ********* dysfunction ******* hypertension-induced ********** *********** and ********** ischemia **** resultant *********** remodeling **** ******** heart failure ********* ******* ** ************* ** ********* activation ** *** RAAS *** *** ****** ***** ** **************** changes ** the ********* **** been ********** ** ********* ************ decreased ********** of *** left ventricle *** ******** diastolic ********** (lusitropy) Decreased *********** ********** has **** ****** ** ******* in ********** structure **** as that **** **** molecular *********** ** ******** which ***** the extracellular ****** for ******************* **** ********* *********** **** ***** present with ******* ** ******** *** ******* ** ********* dysfunction is ****** ***** *** be ******** ** ********* ***** (inspiratory crackles ** ************ ******* ********** Pulmonary ************ *** ***** *********** ******* *** ******* ********** ** ***** ** improving *********** ********** *** prolonging ********* filling times to ****** ********* pressureRight ***** ********* defined ** *** inability ** *** ***** ********* ** ******* ******** ***** flow into *** ********* *********** at * ****** central venous pressure ** **** ***** ******* **** **** heart ******* **** *** increase ** left *********** ******* ******** **** is ********* back **** *** ********* circulation ** severe ****** ********* ****** on ********** of *** **** *********** *********** ** just ******** **** right ***** ******* ****** in *** absence ** **** ***** ******* it ** ****** **** ******** ** ********* ************ resulting from diffuse ******* ********* ******* **** ** ******* *********** ********* disease (COPD) cystic ******** *** ****** **** ******* ****** ****** seborrheic ***** atopic ********** erysipelas * ****** ********** ********* dermatitis)is **** ****** in ******* *** childhood; however **** *********** *** ******** ********** ***** ********** ************ * ****** ******* ************ of *** **** involving *** ***** ******** ******* *** ****** ********** ***** ******* ***** *** **** ******* cap ** infantsCorticosteroid ************ are ****** for suppression ** ****** symptoms *** ****** *** be **** *** maintenance ******** **** ********** ** inflammatory ******** ** *** ************* follicle (the sebaceous ***** ********** **** * **** follicle) It occurs **** commonly ****** ************ **** ********* * ******* readily *********** inflammatory **** ******* **** ****** ************* *** ****** ** *********** **** ******** ********* in ********** adults ***** are **** ***** ** lesions: ************************ ************** ********* *** ******************** ** ******** ****** surface *********** which is ********** ** the skin ** ********* of ********* * hypertrophic scare Erysipelasis ** acute *********** ********* of *** ***** ****** ** *********** form ** *********** **** ***** ****** *************** ******** ************** streptococci ***************** ****** *** **** **** *** ***** **** *** common ***** of involvement *** *** **** ** ******* ********* may not ** ************** ********** provide *********** relief *** ******** antibiotics *** required ** arrest *** *********** *************** * ******* inflammatory ******** of *** bronchial ****** **** ****** ********* ******************* constriction of *** ******* *** ******** airflow obstruction that ** ********** IgE ****** the **** ***** ** *********** ********* a large ****** ** ************ ********* Airway obstruction increases ********** ** ******* *** decreases flow ***** ********** ********** flow ******** ********** ****** *** trapping ************** distal ** ************ *** ********* **** ** ******************** *** ************ ******* attacks *** ********* ******** ***** *** ******** *** ********* ** ** ****** *** individual *********** ***** ************ ****************** dyspnea nonproductive coughing prolonged ********** *********** *** ******************* of ****** ****** **** avoidance ** ********* *** *********** *** mildest form ** ****** (intermittent) short-acting ************ ******** *** prescribed For *** categories of persistent ****** anti-inflammatory *********** are ********* *** ******* *************** are *** mainstay ** ******* ** *********** ***** symptoms *** not ********** ********** using ******* *************** *********** *********** can ** ********** ** more severe asthma *********** beta ******** can be **** ** control persistent bronchospasm; ******* these ******** *** ******** ****** ****** in some *********** **** ******* ******* *************** ***** respiratory ******** ********* Prevention of ************* *********** ******* ******** frequent turning *** ******** changes deep ********* exercises and early ********** ** ******* *********** and ************ ** ********** ************** ** ******** *** *** **** ****** ********** ********* ********** gives *********** immediate feedback ***** ***** ******* ***** ********** **** to ******* ****** ************ oxygen ** ***** *** ********* *** *********** *** given as appropriate to ***** ********* ** *********** ******* ******** *** ********** *** require conventional mechanical ventilation ************** *********** ** ************** ******** *************** ******* *********** pulmonary ************** *********** ********* ******* ******** ******* as a “preventable *** ********* ******* **** **** *********** ************** ******* that *** contribute to *** ******** ** ********** ******** *** ********* ********* ** ************* ** ******* limitation that ** *** ***** reversibleThe pathologic ******* of **** ***** ** ***** central ******* ***** ********** airways *** the lung ********** the dominant ******** of ******* bronchitis *** ********* ******* irritant ******** ******** *********** neutrophils *** *********** ** *** lung ********* ** *********** ****** **** oxidative stress ************ extracellular matrix proteolysis *** ********* *** ********** **** ***************** abnormalities **** ** ***** *** hormonal ************* malnutrition ****** wasting osteoporosis and anemia *** associated **** ********** ******* *** COPD ******* ******* ***** ********** **** ***** and ************* ******* ****** occupational ***** *** ********* ******* irritants *** fumes) ****** *** ********* **** ******* **** **** for ******* *** ******* (in ****** ****** ********** ******* *** ********* *** *** factor **** ******* **** ******** Pneumonia ********** ************* *** *************** Pneumoniais ********* ** *** ***** *********** tract ****** ** bacteria viruses ***** ******** ** ********* ** is *** ***** ******* ***** of ***** ** the ****** States *** ** *********** *** **** disease *** ***** **** *** ***** ************* ***** ** ********* are ******** ** ** upper *********** ***** ********* which is usually viral This is **** ******** by *** onset of ***** dyspnea *** ***** *** ***** ** ***** ********** *** *** be ************* especially ** ***** ********* ***** ******** include chills malaise *** ********* ***** *************** *** **** ** ***** ********* pneumonia; ******* resistant ******* ***************** ******** **** ************** individuals *** **** a specific ************* ** not ********** ********* *********** *** ****** ***** ** the ****** causative microorganism124125Viral pneumonia ** usually treated **** ********** ******* ***** (unless ********* ********* ********* is ********* ******* ********** *** ** needed ** ****** ***** ********** **** opportunistic ************** *** ** polymicrobial *** ******* multiple drugs including ************ Chronic bronchitisis defined ** hypersecretion ** ***** and ******* productive cough **** continues *** ** ***** * months ** the **** ******** *** ****** months) for at ***** * *********** ***** ******** ********* result ** ****** inflammation **** ************ ** neutrophils *********** and lymphocytes **** *** bronchial ******* trapping ******* *** thorax ******* *** *********** ******* ** a ********** ************ This leads ** decreased tidal volume *************** *** hypercapniaThe common symptoms ** ******* ********** ******* ********* ******** ********* ******** *** ********* ** ****** *********** ******* have * ********** ***** ************** ********* *** ******** ** ****** *********** ********** ***** ** ***** by ************************* (long-acting ******* **************** ** long-acting inhaled beta ******** *** symptomatic ******* with **** *** *********** ********** *** ************ are prescribed ** ****** dyspnea *** ******* ***** Chest ******** therapy *** ** ******* and ******** deep ********* *** ******** ******** ****** acute ************* ********** *** ************* individuals ******* ********* **** *********** *** *************** *** *** need ********** *********** Chronic **** *************** *** ** needed **** in *** ****** ** *** ******* *** ****** ** considered * **** resortc Acute ********************** **** ***** ********** ******* **** * nonproductive ***** **** ****** ** ********* *** is ********** ** cold dry ** ***** *** However ******** ****** may ** ******** **** **** viral infections Chest **** ***** ******** from the ****** ** coughing ********* ******** ** **** ******* ******** *** a ***** *********** **** ** ****************** with ********* bronchitis have * ********** ***** fever *** **** ****** *** ******* (breast bone) that ** ********** by ******** It ** rare ** ********** ******* adults ****** ***** viral ********* *** is common ** those **** **** ********* ********** ** ******* **** rest aspirin ******** *** ***************************** ******* ************ ** *** small ******* ** *********** ** is **** ****** in ******** ******** ************** ******* * ***** *********** ***** ****** *** ** ********* ******** ********* fever; dry ************* ****** and ************* ***** ********* ******** *************** *** ***** **************** ********************** ********** ******** dilation ** *** ******* It ******* ****** in *********** with ***** respiratory ********** **** *** ********** **** chronic ********* inflammation **** ** obstruction ** an airway **** ****** ***** *********** aspiration of * foreign **** ********* ****** ******** ************ ********** ******** ** the ********* wall ** ******** ******* ********** *** primary ******* ** bronchiectasis ** ******* productive cough ***** may **** **** ** a childhood ******* or *********************** is ******* **** ****** culture antibiotics bronchodilators ***************** ***** ***** physiotherapy *** supplemental oxygen26 **** cancer: Lung ******************** *********** ***** **** *** epithelium ** *** *********** ***** ** **** *** termlung cancerexcludes ***** ********* ****** ********* ************* ** ************ risk factors associated **** lung ****** ******* benzopyrene radon *** ****** ********* ******* arsenic) asbestos ****** diesel exhaust ******** ******* ***** ****** ****** vinyl ******** *** ************ ****** ****** ******** lymphomas ********* ********* *** ********************* ** ***** ***** ********* ******* are nonspecific and *** ****** ** ** ********** by *** ********** to the ******* ** ******* *** ******** ************** *** ********* *** ********** they ******* coughing ***** **** ********* sputum ********** hemoptysis ********* ****** *********** ******* effusions and ****** ******* ********* of lung ****** ****** ** *** history of **** factors *** ******** a ******* ******** examination and a ************* ** ********** tests ********* ****** ******** ***** x-ray ******** CT ******** ** ********* *********** *** scanning ************ biopsy ******* *** ********* growth ****** ********* *** ***** ********* markers *** ****** *** ********* ********** ******* For all ***** ** ***** stage **** carcinoma the preferred treatment ** ******** ********* Once metastasis has ***** ***** total ******** resection ** **** ********* *** survival ***** ************ decrease NSCLC is **** responsive to ************ **** is ***** **** carcinoma *** ************ *** platinum) and ********* are ******** used ** ******** ** ********** care199-201Small **** ********* is usually widely metastasized ** *** time ** diagnosis ********** ************ or ********* *** improve ************** ********* ********** **** as dose-intensified radiation ************** ablation microwave ******** *********** *** brachytherapy *** ** ********* ** primary or palliative ********* for those for **** ******** ******* ** *** ** *************** *** ******** ********** *** lung ****** *** ***** ************* ********* ************** ******* targeting ** ****** ****** receptors tumor *********** ****** gene ******* *** *************** Acid-Base ******** hard ** *** ******** ** ** on page 122 in *** **** ****** **** ** **** over28 Vascular ******** *** their ******************** *********** in immunity–Chapter * pg 26330 *********** ** Cardiovascular Function *** mechanical *** ************ ********************

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