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# Use error-propagation (i., first-order second-moment) approximation to calculate a mean and standard deviation for the cost of this new telescope.

__Use error-propagation (i.e., first-order second-moment) approximation to calculate a mean and standard deviation for the cost of this new telescope.__

In making early cost estimates for complex systems projects, NASA and its contractors rely on parametric estimating techniques using Cost Estimating Relations (CERs). CERs are nothing more than multivariate regression models. A review of CERs for space telescopes has been made by Stahl, from which a simple one-dimensional CER for telescope complexity is shown in Figure 2. in which,