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Write a 8 page essay on Musculoskeletal MRI.FAI occurs in two forms that include pincer and cam. The cam form derives from the relationship between the femoral head and the neck, in the case the conne
Write a 8 page essay on Musculoskeletal MRI.
FAI occurs in two forms that include pincer and cam. The cam form derives from the relationship between the femoral head and the neck, in the case the connection of the two is more aspherical than perfectly round. The name of the form cam – comes from the Dutch root-word that means cog. The condition, where the roundness of the connection is lost, makes the contact between the socket and the head abnormal (HipFAI 2013). The pincer form is different from the cam form. Pincer is derived from the French-root word that means to pinch. The pincer form is the situation where the acetabulum has more than normal enclosure of the femoral head (HipFAI 2013). This condition of over-coverage, ordinarily takes place around the front-top edge of the acetabulum (socket), resulting in the pinching of the labral cartilage – between the anterior femoral head-neck and the edge of the socket intersection area (Blankenbaker & Tuite 2006). The pincer form of FAI is ordinarily a result of retroversion, which is the condition where the socket turns backwards. profunda, where the socket part of the intersection is very deep. or protruding, which is the situation, where the ball extends to the pelvis area. Many times, the two forms of FAI exist mutually, which is referred as mixed impingement (HipFAI 2013). FAI is related to the damage of the cartilage, the tear of the labral, sports hernias, hip arthritis, hyperlaxity, and low back pain. FAI is much common among active persons and high activity athletes (HipFAI 2013). ‘A Normal Joint and the different forms of FAI: Cam FAI, Pincer FAI, and Mixed FAI’ (HipFAI 2013) ‘MRI image of Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI)’ (Filigenzi and Bredella 2008) Coil Selection and Positioning a Patient for MRI of Hips Coil selection during an MRI for the hip depends on a number of considerations. These include whether the two hips of the patient are to be imagined, or whether only one is to be imaged. The decision of whether to image one or the two hips will also influence the selection of pulse sequence, and whether or not, to use injection contrast fluids intravenously, or intra-articularly, during the imaging process (Beltran et al. 2002). Coil selections, deciding whether to image the two hips or not, and whether to use contract materials are decision areas compounded by the radiologist, in the case they are not provided with the clinical information of the patient. In case the radiologist wants to image the two hips, it will be after they have determined that they are looking for metastasis or osteonecrosis. In case it is determined that a single hip imaging is most relevant – which offers higher contrast and spatial resolution – a dedicated surface coil will be used for the imaging (Beltran et al. 2002). In case that a bilateral hip imaging is required, a body coil is chosen. Consequently, when the imaging shows positive findings, the radiologist can choose to switch to single hip imaging (Beltran et al. 2002). The change will require a dedicated surface coil, for instance a flexible coil, which offers higher anatomical resolution from smaller structures like the acetabular labrum. It also offers better imaging for the evaluation of the subchondral area of the ball or the articular surfaces (Beltran et al. 2002). During the positioning of a patient when MRI imaging the hips, the