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QUESTION

Your article review must be a minimum of two pages in length. Be sure to address each of the following points in your article review.Identify the premise of the article and supporting points.How does

Your article review must be a minimum of two pages in length. Be sure to address each of the following points in your article review.

  • Identify the premise of the article and supporting points.
  • How does the author describe organizational behavior?
  • Why is organizational behavior important?
  • Which business concepts covered in this course were you able to identify?

You are required to use at least one scholarly source. All in-text citations and references must be formatted according to APA guidelines.

INFLUENCE OF THRIVING AND JOB SATISFACTION ON TURN OVER INTENTION: MEDIATING ROLE OF JOB SATISFACTION

Hafeez, M Moosa Ismaa.International Journal of Information, Business and Management; Chung-Li Vol. 11, Iss. 3,  (Aug 2019): 1-8.

Abstract

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Headnote

Abstract

In current scenario, every organization wants to get over competitors. Every organization wants to thrive and get edge over competitors. Data were collected from 2 banks and 2 schools, 106 respondents took part in survey. In current study, we examined positive effect of thriving on job satisfaction and negative relation with turn over intention. All results are significant. Thriving has negative effect on turnover intention and positive effect on job satisfication.Job satisfaction mediates the effect on thriving and turnover intention.

Key words: Thriving, job satisfaction and turn over intention.

Introduction

In current cooperate world, there are lot of factors which determine the performance of an employee. Oragnizations seek the factors to compete in the organization. Now a days most important problem organizations face, employee is willing to get better chance to move and the turn over intention of an employee, If employee wants to move from organization to avail better opprountunity, he will not be goal oriented.

Thriving

According to (Porath, Spreitzer, Gibson, & Garnett, 2012) Thriving is defined "as the psychological state in which individuals experience both a sense of vitality and learning."

According to (Qingguo Zhai, Saifang Wang, 2017) supervisor and coworker support mediated by thriving increases job satisfaction of an employee. If employee thrives at work place, it means he is ready to learn more and is energetic about his work. Thriving has many antecedents which enables employee to thrive. Thrives employee reduces turnover intention (Abid et al. 2016).Thriving mediates the effect of LMX outcomes affective commitment and job performance ("Jie LI," 2015). Thriving associates with behavioral outcomes (Mushtaq, Abid, Sarwar, & Ahmed, 2017) thriving is the most discussed phenomena in current scenario, every organization which wants to excel in the cooperate world tries to achieve the level where his employees thrive. Scholarly interest has been increasing in thriving at workplace (Abid and Ahmed, 2016).

Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction is how an employee feels during his work (Salem et al. 2010).Job satisfaction is basically analyze after complete study of job attributes (Brayfield & Rothe, 1951).job satisfaction can be measured by different ways like job involvement, job commitment, work engagement etc. Job satisfaction means how employee takes his job .if employee is satisfied, he enjoys work. Employee empowerment leads to job satisfaction as well and improve his mental health (Spreitzer, G.M. 1996). job satisfaction is need of time, satisfied employee gives his/her full input to achieve the goal of an organization. Supervisor support and coworker support also stick employee to organization,commited employee is satisfied employee and there are many factors which effects the satisfaction level of an employee(Tepper et al., 2004).Leader or boss attitudes effect employee level of satisfaction (Hidayat, 2016). Satisfaction means how much you are willing to input in your work.

Turn over Intention

Turn over Intention means employee willingness to leave the job, there can be many factors which can effect employee thinking to quite the job(working condition,co worker support, supervisor support etc).Turn over Intention can be influenced by many factors (Harrison, D. A., Newman, D. A., & Roth, 2006;Tett, R. P., & Meyer, 1993).In last decades (2001-2009) companies downsize their employees ,which increases the job insecurity among employees and increases turnover intention for better and handsome outcomes(Mgedezi, SiphoRaymond Toga, 2014).According to (Abid, Zahra, et al., 2016)supportive environment reduces the turnover intention of an employee,If employee thrives at workplace he feels energetic and he tries to give his maximum input. Work mindfulness decreases the employee turnover intention(Dane & Brummel, 2013).Turn over intention decreases by supportive ethical leadership approach(Akdogan A. Asuman, 2015).

Objective

The purpose of this research is to see the effect of thriving on turn over intension, if employee thrives it reduces the turn over intention of an employee and it increases the job satisfaction of employee.

Significance

In previous researches we see the relationship of thriving with turnover and job satisfaction(Abid, Zahra, et al., 2016),(Zopiatis, Constanti, & Theocharous, 2014),(Tzeng, 2002),(Porath et al., 2012).Relationship between these three articles have not been seen before. Job satisfaction mediates the effect of thriving and turnover intention.

Research Gap

In this research we are going to see how the thriving effects the employee job satisfaction and turn over intention. The organizations in Pakistan are not worked too much on these three variables collectively.

Theoretical Model

Hypotheses Development

Thriving and turnover Intention

If employee is thrive at work place ,he learns more and feel more energetic during his work. If an employee feels alert and energetic at his work place he reduces his intention to leave the organization(Shihong et al., 2018).

Hypothesis 1: Thriving is negatively related to Turnover Intention Thriving and Job satisfaction

If an employee thrives at work place ,it increases his level of job satisfication.Satisfied employee enjoys his job and learns more. If an employee does not satisfied with his job ,he gets tired from what he does ,satisfied employees enjoys his work. Sometimes employees needs to be feel energetic(Mushtaq et al., 2017).

Hypothesis2:Thriving is positively related to job satisfaction.

Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

Job satisfaction motivates employee to keep carry on the current organization((Sukriket, 2014 ;Huei-ling liu, 2018;Sector & Zaraket, 2017; Knapp, Smith, & Sprinkle, 2017),job satisfaction effects turnover intention. Thriving have a negative relation with turnover intention.

Hypothesis3: job satisfaction negatively effect turnover intention Job satisfaction mediating the effect on thriving and turnover intention.

Methodology

Measures

Thriving at work

Ten items scale was used to measure thriving at work developed by ((Porath et al., 2012)on five point Likert scale ranging from (1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree).The sample item of learning is "I continue to learn more and more as time goes by" and for vitality dimension "I feel alive and vital".

Job satisfaction

Three items scale was adapted to measure job satisfaction(Cammann, C., Fichman, M., Jenkins, D., & Klesh, 1979).on five Likert scale,it ranging from (1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree).All in all, I do not like my job,2;iam satisfied with my job.

Turnover Intention

The three items scale were used to measure the turnover intention by(Mitchell, T.R., Holtom, B.C., Lee, T.W., Sablynski, C.J.,&Erez, 2001).These items ranging from (1=strongly disagree to 2=strongly agree).The sample items are 1; I think a lot about leaving the organization.2: As soon as possible, I will leave the organization.

Sample Size

All data were collected through convenient sampling. 150 questionnaire distributed but only 106 responses were received.

Population

Data was collected from private sector. All data was collected from Lahore ,Punjab,Pakistan,south Asia. All data was collected from 2 banks and 2 schools.

Pilot Study

Pilot study was conducted,15 questionnaire were distributed to see the problems, if anyone will face. This study is not conducted to check the hypothesis, just to see which hurdle one can face while filling the questionnaire.

ANALYSIS

Correlation table

Data Analysis and Interpretations

Table 1 provides bivariate correlations among all study variables. The correlations coefficients are in the anticipated directions and provide initial support for the study hypotheses. Consistent with our hypotheses, the bivariate correlations indicate that thriving at work is negatively associated with turnover intention( r =-.219·, P> 0.05),Thriving is positively associated with job satisfaction ( r = .701··., P > 0.01),turn over intention is negatively associated with job satisfaction ( r =- 0.381··, P > 0.01).

We used Andrew Hayes spss (version 24) for analysis. Regression analysis run to know the impact of thriving on job satisfaction (B=.5648,t=9.9700,t=9.9700,LLCI=.4525,ULCI=.6722).In second model we see job satisfaction is effecting negatively turn over intention(B=-.4666,t=-3.4923,t=-3.4923).These results shows our two hypotheses(H2 ,H3)are acceptable.

(B=.5648,se= .1077,t=7383,LLCI=-.1341,ULCI=.2931)In third model we see thriving is not effecting turnover intention negatively.Our third hypothesis (H1)is not acceptable, as we saw in past, thriving effecting turnover intention negatively but in current study we see they do not have the same effect.

Discussion

In this study we see the results that thriving directly effects job satisfaction if employee is satisfied he thrives more. Simultanously, job satisfaction effects turnover Intention of an employee. Thriving have a insignificant effect upon turnover intention. Job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover intention (Mcinerney, Korpershoek, Wang, & Morin, 2018). Thriving at workplace is very important, effects the overall performance of an employee (Walumbwa, Muchiri, Misati, Wu, & Meiliani, 2017). In this study, we explore the relationship of thriving.(Abid, Zahra, et al., 2016). Thriving has a positive effect on job satisfaction (Abid, Khan and Michelle Chia-Wei Hong, 2017). which means people are more energetic and gives more output ,if they enjoy work. Job satisfaction reduces the effect of intention to quite, and our study supports it(Sukriket, 2014). In previous studies (Shihong et al., 2018) used to say that thriving has a positive effect on turn over intention ,but our study contradict it, this study shows that thriving is not reducing the effect of turn over intention, it means there are many other confounding variables or factors which effect turn over intention. This study shows the partial full mediatation.

LIMITATIIONS

There are many limitation for future study. Firstly sample size is very small, if we increase the sample size results would be much better.secondly,we collected the data only from private sector, data can be collected from public sector as well.Lastly,we can consider more variables for better understanding. There are many confounding and some important variables which effects and need to study.

References

References

Abid, G., Author, C., & Ahmed, A. (2016). MULTIFACETEDNESS OF THRIVING : ITS COGNITIVE , AFFECTIVE , AND BEHAVIORAL DIMENSIONS, 8(3), 121-130.

Abid, G., Khan, B., & and Michelle Chia-Wei Hong. (2017). No Title. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2016(1).

Abid, G., Zahra, I., & Ahmed, A. (2016). Promoting thriving at work and waning turnover intention : A relational perspective. Future Business Journal, 2(2), 127-137.

Akdogan A. Asuman, O. D. (2015). No Title. Journal of Business Ethics, 130(1), pp 59-67. Retrieved from The Effect of Ethical Leadership Behavior on Ethical Climate, Turnover Intention, and Affective Commitment

Brayfield, A. H., & Rothe, H. F. (1951). Journal of Applied Psychology, 35(5), 307-311.

Cammann, C., Fichman, M., Jenkins, D., & Klesh, J. (1979). U. of M. (1979). No Title. The Michigan OrganizationalAssessment Questionnaire. , , Ann Arbor, Unpublishe.

Dane, E., & Brummel, B. J. (2013). Examining workplace mindfulness and its relations to job performance and turnover intention. Sage Journals, 67(1), 105-128.

Harrison, D. A., Newman, D. A., & Roth, P. L. (2006). No Title. How Important Are Job Attitudes? Meta- Analytic Comparisons of Integrative Behavioural Outcomes and Time Sequences. Academy of Management Journal, 49((2)), 305-325.

Hidayat, S. (2016). The Authentic Leadership is Source of Intrinsic Motivation in Work Engagement with Moderating Role of Overall Trust ( Cognitive and Affective Trust ), 18(2013), 18-25.

Huei-ling liu, V. hwei lo. (2018). No Title. Asian Journal of Communication, 28(2), pages 153-169.

Jie LI. (2015). Journal of Administrative Science, 28(1), 39-51.

Knapp, J. R., Smith, B. R., & Sprinkle, T. A. (2017). Is It the Job or the Support ? Examining Structural and Relational Predictors of Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention for Nonprofit Employees. Sage Journal, 46(3), 652 -671.

Mcinerney, D. M., Korpershoek, H., Wang, H., & Morin, A. J. S. (2018). Teachers ' occupational attributes and their psychological wellbeing , job satisfaction , occupational self-concept and quitting intentions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 71, 145-158.

Mgedezi, SiphoRaymond Toga, T. M. (2014). Intrinsic Motivation and Job Involvement on Employee Retention : Case Study - A Selection of Eastern Cape Government Departments, 5(20), 2119-2126.

Mitchell, T.R., Holtom, B.C., Lee, T.W., Sablynski, C.J.,&Erez, M. (2001). (2001). No Title. Whypeoplestay:usingjobembeddednesstopredictvoluntary OfManagementJournal, Turnover. Academy of Mangaement, 44(6), 1102-1121.

Mushtaq, M., Abid, G., Sarwar, K., & Ahmed, S. (2017). Forging Ahead: How to Thrive at the Modern Workplace. Iranian Journal of Management Studies (IJMS), 10(4), 783-818.

Porath, C., Spreitzer, G., Gibson, C., & Garnett, F. G. (2012). Thriving at work : Toward its measurement , construct validation , and theoretical refinement, 275(May 2011), 250-275.

QINGGUO ZHAI, SAIFANG WANG, A. H. W. (2017). Thriving at work as a mediator of the relationship between workplace support and life satisfaction. Journal of Management & Organization, 1-17.

Saleem, R. (2010). Effect of Work Motivation on Job Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Service Organizations of Pakistan, 5(11), 213-222.

Sector, P., & Zaraket, W. (2017). International Humanities Studies, 4(September), 1-14.

Shihong, Z., Yu, S., Zhinan, S., Fengzhe, X., Jinghui, W., Shue, Z., ... Shue, Z. (2018). +8615904513335; Shi Yu · , MA, Maters student,Health Management College of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China,. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 0-2.

Spreitzer, G.M. (, "Social structural characteristics of psychological empowerment." (1996). No Title. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39, 483-504.

Sukriket, P. (2014). No Title. AU Journal of Management, 12(2), The relationship between job satisfaction and turn. https://doi-org.libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/ISSN 1686-0039

Tepper, B. J., Duffy, M. K., Ensley, M. D., Tepper, B. J., Duffy, M. K., Hoobler, J., & Ensley, M. D. (2004). Moderators of the Relationships Between Coworkers â€TM OrganizationalCitizenship Behavior and Fellow Employees â€TM Attitu .... Moderators of the Relationships Between Coworkers ' Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Fellow Employees ' Attitudes, (December 2014).

Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). No Title. Job Satisfication,organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention, and Turnover: Path Analyses Based on Meta-Analytic Findings. Personnel Psychology, 46, 259-293.

Tzeng, H. (2002). The influence of nurses ' working motivation and job satisfaction on intention to quit: an empirical investigation in Taiwan, 39, 867-878.

Walumbwa, F. O., Muchiri, M. K., Misati, E., Wu, C., & Meiliani, M. (n.d.). No Title. Journal of Oragnizational Behaviour, 39(3), 249-261.

Zopiatis, A., Constanti, P., & Theocharous, A. L. (2014). Job involvement , commitment , satisfaction and turnover: Evidence from hotel employees in Cyprus. Tourism Management, 41, 129-140.

Abid, G., Author, C., & Ahmed, A. (2016). MULTIFACETEDNESS OF THRIVING : ITS COGNITIVE , AFFECTIVE , AND BEHAVIORAL DIMENSIONS, 8(3), 121-130.

Abid, G., Khan, B., & and Michelle Chia-Wei Hong. (2017). No Title. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2016(1).

Abid, G., Zahra, I., & Ahmed, A. (2016). Promoting thriving at work and waning turnover intention : A relational perspective. Future Business Journal, 2(2), 127-137.

Akdogan A. Asuman, O. D. (2015). No Title. Journal of Business Ethics, 130(1), pp 59-67. Retrieved from The Effect of Ethical Leadership Behavior on Ethical Climate, Turnover Intention, and Affective Commitment

Brayfield, A. H., & Rothe, H. F. (1951). Journal of Applied Psychology, 35(5), 307-311.

Cammann, C., Fichman, M., Jenkins, D., & Klesh, J. (1979). U. of M. (1979). No Title. The Michigan OrganizationalAssessment Questionnaire. , , Ann Arbor, Unpublishe.

Dane, E., & Brummel, B. J. (2013). Examining workplace mindfulness and its relations to job performance and turnover intention. Sage Journals, 67(1), 105-128.

Harrison, D. A., Newman, D. A., & Roth, P. L. (2006). No Title. How Important Are Job Attitudes? Meta- Analytic Comparisons of Integrative Behavioural Outcomes and Time Sequences. Academy of Management Journal, 49((2)), 305-325.

Hidayat, S. (2016). The Authentic Leadership is Source of Intrinsic Motivation in Work Engagement with Moderating Role of Overall Trust ( Cognitive and Affective Trust ), 18(2013), 18-25.

Huei-ling liu, V. hwei lo. (2018). No Title. Asian Journal of Communication, 28(2), pages 153-169. Jie LI. (2015). Journal of Administrative Science, 28(1), 39-51.

Knapp, J. R., Smith, B. R., & Sprinkle, T. A. (2017). Is It the Job or the Support? Examining Structural and Relational Predictors of Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention for Nonprofit Employees. Sage Journal, 46(3), 652 -671.

Mcinerney, D. M., Korpershoek, H., Wang, H., & Morin, A. J. S. (2018). Teachers ' occupational attributes and their psychological wellbeing , job satisfaction , occupational self-concept and quitting intentions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 71, 145-158.

Mgedezi, SiphoRaymond Toga, T. M. (2014). Intrinsic Motivation and Job Involvement on Employee Retention : Case Study - A Selection of Eastern Cape Government Departments, 5(20), 2119-2126.

Mitchell, T.R., Holtom, B.C., Lee, T.W., Sablynski, C.J.,&Erez, M. (2001). (2001). No Title. Whypeoplestay:usingjobembeddednesstopredictvoluntary OfManagementJournal, Turnover. Academy of Mangaement, 44(6), 1102-1121.

Mushtaq, M., Abid, G., Sarwar, K., & Ahmed, S. (2017). Forging Ahead : How to Thrive at the Modern Workplace. Iranian Journal of Management Studies (IJMS), 10(4), 783-818.

Porath, C., Spreitzer, G., Gibson, C., & Garnett, F. G. (2012). Thriving at work : Toward its measurement , construct validation , and theoretical refinement, 275(May 2011), 250-275.

QINGGUO ZHAI, SAIFANG WANG, A. H. W. (2017). Thriving at work as a mediator of the relationship between workplace support and life satisfaction. Journal of Management & Organization, 1-17.

Saleem, R. (2010). Effect of Work Motivation on Job Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Service Organizations of Pakistan, 5(11), 213-222.

Sector, P., & Zaraket, W. (2017). International Humanities Studies, ^(September), 1-14.

Shihong, Z., Yu, S., Zhinan, S., Fengzhe, X., Jinghui, W., Shue, Z., ... Shue, Z. (2018). +8615904513335; Shi Yu · , MA, Maters student,Health Management College of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China,. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 0-2.

Spreitzer, G.M. (, "Social structural characteristics of psychological empowerment." (1996). No Title. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39, 483-504.

Sukriket, P. (2014). No Title. AU Journal of Management, 12(2), The relationship between job satisfaction and turn.

Tepper, B. J., Duffy, M. K., Ensley, M. D., Tepper, B. J., Duffy, M. K., Hoobler, J., & Ensley, M. D. (2004). Moderators of the Relationships Between Coworkers â€TM OrganizationalCitizenship Behavior and Fellow Employees â€TM Attitu .... Moderators of the Relationships Between Coworkers ' Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Fellow Employees ' Attitudes, (December 2014).

Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). No Title. Job Satisfication,organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention, and Turnover: Path Analyses Based on Meta-Analytic Findings. Personnel Psychology, 46, 259-293.

Tzeng, H. (2002). The influence of nurses ' working motivation and job satisfaction on intention to quit: an empirical investigation in Taiwan, 39, 867-878.

Walumbwa, F. O., Muchiri, M. K., Misati, E., Wu, C., & Meiliani, M. (n.d.). No Title. Journal of Oragnizational Behaviour, 39(3), 249-261.

Zopiatis, A., Constanti, P., & Theocharous, A. L. (2014). Job involvement , commitment , satisfaction and turnover: Evidence from hotel employees in Cyprus. Tourism Management, 41, 129-140.

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