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QUESTION

1. What are the role of mast cells? 2. What is the role of histamine? 3. What are the steps of phagocytosis? Explain each step. 3. What causes the edema that occurs during the inflammat

1.      What are the role of mast cells?

2.      What is the role of histamine?

3. What are the steps of phagocytosis? Explain each step.

3.      What causes the edema that occurs during the inflammatory process?

4.      Which component of the plasma protein system tags pathogenic microorganisms for destruction by neutrophils and macrophages?

5.      What is an antigen? How does an antigen cause a response?

6.  MHC and CD1 molecules are alike because both molecules contain what?

7.  How do surfactant proteins A through D provide innate resistance?

8.  What are the stages of the general adaptive syndrome?

9.       Differentiate between passive and active immunity. Give examples. 

10.   What are NK killer cells?

11.              What is the purpose of the inflammatory process.

12.              What is clonal diversity?

13.              What roles do fibroblasts play?

14.              What causes keloids to form?

15.              Which process causes heat and redness to occur during the inflammatory process?

16.  What is the complement cascade? What role does it play? What is its end result?

17.   What are cytokines and what roles do they play?

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cell ********** **** an **** ******** **** *** *** ***** facilitate the ************ processStep ** Engulfment ******************* where *** ************* is ingested **** the **** *** ***** * phagocytic ******* or ********* (membrane bound ******* **** ******** *** ************* *** ** *** ****** *** ********** *** ************* plasma ******** ** ******** ***** ***** * role in the next ***** ** ********** ** ************ *** formation ** the phagosome ********* ***** ****** *** cell **** **** *** phagosome *** ***** ************ ******** creating * ************* ******* ********* granules: ************ molecules including: myeloperoxidase ******** defensins **** ********** elastase Secondary ********* ********* **** *** bactericidal *** *** ******** ** ********** ****** ******** ******** *********** lactoferrin *** ***** ************* 4: ************ after ******** ** the ******** *** ******** inside the phagolysosome the ************* ** **** ****** *** ******** *** nutrients **** the **** *** *** are absorbed *** ********* ***** ******** *** ******* **** the **** ******* ********** The *** ways **** ** ********* is through ** oxygen ********* *** oxygen independent ************* **** causes *** ***** **** ****** ****** *** ************ ********* ***** ********* of *** ****** protein ****** **** ********** ************** *** *********** ** *********** *** macrophages?5 What is ** ******** How **** ** antigen ***** * *********** ******* is * molecule ******** proteins) **** *** the ******* to react to ********** ** * and * ***** **** antigens ** ********* *** *********** or induce responses **** ******* ********** ** ********** T ***** ******** &Huether 2014 p ****** order *** ******** to ******** appropriately * ******* of *** ********* **** ** recognized by *** **** ** specific ********* ** * ********** ******** *** also be ********** ** *** **** ** ********** The **** ** *** antigen **** ** ********** *** *********** ** an epitope (McCance ************ **** * 228)Antigens cause * ******** *** ******* ** *** ******* ** autoimmune ********* and diseases ******* going **** ** ******* **** ********* **** **** ****** an immune response ** *** form ** an ******** *********** ****** *************** ** designed to create ********* protection ******* ******** *** ******* ** ******* ********** ** which ******** cause * ******** to **** functioning ************* *** immune ****** will ********* and ******* substances **** ******* ******** ********* ********** ** ****** 2018)6 MHC and *** ********* *** ***** ******* **** ********* contain ******** and ** 1 ********* *** alike ******* ******* **** ********** *** plasma membrane byhydrophobic ******* ** the **** of the ** *** ********* How ** surfactant ******** * ******* * provide ****** ************** ***** ******* *** secrete glycoproteins collectins ********** encompasses surfactant ******** A ******* * *** ******* site ** **** ********* reacts **** ********* ********** ** * ***** ** *************** ******** ********** ** ********* * **** ***** of ********** ************** (McCance ************ **** p **** This ********** * *** * collectin ****** ********** *** *********** recognition ** *** microorganism ** *********** ********* macrophage ********** ******* ************ ************ ** *** ****** ** which ***** ******* and ******** ** ************** ******* ******** *** damaged cells ******** ************ 2014)8 **** *** *** ****** ** *** ******* ******** syndrome?Selye ***** *** ******* ********** ******** ***** *** ** * ***** he discovered ** manifestations **** *********** * nonspecific ******** ** injurious ******* *** ******* ********** ******** *** three sequential ****** Stage *** ** the ***** ***** ** ******** ** ***** one the ******* nervous ****** is aroused and *** ******** ******** *** ********* **** ** *** fight or ****** ********** ***** *** ** *** stage ** resistance or ********** During ***** *** ************ *********** ** fight ** ****** ******* ***** three ** *** ***** of exhaustion ** stage three ************ ********** *** *********** ** broken down due ** continuous ****** ***** three ***** *** ***** ** ******* ******** ********** occurs **** stress ********* and ********** ** not ********** ******** &Huether 2014 * 339)9 Differentiate between ******* *** active ******** **** ************** ******** ** **** * person ** ******* to *** ********** for ******* or receives *** ********** ******* *** an ****** response takes ***** ** response ** *** ******** *** **** **** produce ********** ** * ***** ******** ************ ***** ******* ******** ** **** * ***** ******** ******** antibodies ******* *** ******** ** ******* ******* ****** **** ** **** not elicit ** ****** ******** *** *** ******** ******** is only ********* ******** &Huether 2014) 10 **** are ** ****** ************* ****** ***** are * **** ** lymphocyte ** *** ****** immune ****** **** **** the ****** ** ***** and viral ***** by ******* to *** ***** *** ********** ********* *** then ********* cytokines *** ***** ********* **** **** *** target **** *** ** ***** **** inhibitory *** ********** ********* that **** them the ability ** ************* ******* ******** cells ********* ** ***** ****** *** ****** **** ***** ******** ************ 2014 * ******** **** is *** ******* ** *** ************ ********** ******* ** *** ************ ******* is ******** ****** *** form ** assault on *** body ******* ****** ****** ******** injury ** physical affliction This ******** ** ** be * ********* defense ** *** body(McCance ************ 2014) **** *** body ** ******* ***** ** vasodilation to **** with delivery ** white blood ***** ** *** **** ** the injury *** ** **** fight *** any ********** agents **** may ** ****** ** invade *** ****** **** is ****** **************** ********* ******** *** ******* ** T and * ***** ** ********* *** ******* ******* ***** ** *** *********** **** * *** * **** recognize a specific antigen *** *** *** ** *** ***** *********** ultimately **** ** *********** ******** ** ******** This ******* ****** ** *** thymus *** * ***** and **** ****** *** * ***** ***** ****** release *** *********** *** **** the ***** ******* ******* ******* that **** them **** ****** * ** * ***** **** then ******* ** ***** ******** ****** ** *********** *** ******* ******** ******** p ****** What ***** ** *********** *************** **** to play * indirect **** ** *** ******** ** *** body ** ************ which ****** **** the ******** *** ********* **** inhalation to ******* ********* "Fibroblasts *** *** ***** *********** tropocollagen ***** ** *** ********** ********** andground substance ******************* matrix **** ***** the ****** ******* cells *** ****** ** ********** ******* (Yun ***** *** 2015) ***** **** ******** ** ** create *** ************* matrix ***** ** what ********* *** ***** **** ****** ****** *** transfer ** the chemicals that cells **** to one ******* **** ****** **** ****** the cells ** remain ****** **** ************ ****** ** ****** ********** ******* ************* ****** ***** ******** comprise another ******** of ******* Whilst *** **** ********** ********** ** ***** proteins *** those concerned with providing ********** tissue ********* ** is clear that **** **** **** powerful ********* effects ******* *** ******** can influence *** ***** ******** *** state ** ********** ** ************ ***** ** *** ****** ****** ******** indicates **** these signals *** **** **** *********** roles ** ****** of ************ ***** ** ******* ***** and in *** handling of * number ** ********* *** growth factors" ******** ***** ********** & **** ***** ** appears that *********** *** ******** ***** important ******* **** create the ****** ** ***** these ********* ******* travel ******* *** ****** ***** ***** ***** not ** allowed ** properly communicate with one another nor ***** they ** **** to maintain ***** ********* ***** ******** What ****** ******* ** ******* *** ****** care ******* ***** healing is important **** it related to any type ** ***** In **** ****** ***** *********** ** vital *** ******** ******** When * wound does *** progress or heal within *** ****** ** one **** Medicare ******** the wound ******* *** **** *** *** *** **** care services ** supplies ***** *** complex cases where ****** do *** **** due to ******* reason ****** **** a six-step healing ******* ***** are as ******* ***** ********** ************ proliferation *** ********* ************ **************** *** **************** * ***** ******** * * ***** ****** *** ************** ***** there is ***** ***** ******* whichassembly *** remodeling ** *** ******** ****** ***************** ** the wound *** *** *********** of the ************* * &Huether * **** p 1625-1626)Dysfunctional wound healing can ****** ** anytime in the ******* of *** ************** ************* K ************ S 2014 * ********** *** reason ******* ****** ** *** **** *** ************* influenced *** caused ** abnormal ***** ******* **** excessive fibroblast ******** *** ******** ********* during ****** ********** tissue repair ****** ********* has **** ***** ** **** autosomal ********* *** ********* ******** *********** patterns have been reported(McCance * ************ S **** * ********** ******* ****** ** ****** *** ** an ********* between ********** ********* *** connective *********** **** is ***** ** ** **** ******** ** ******* the ********* **** ***** is ****** *** recent ******** has ***** ********** ****** *** less ********* *** **** the ********** ** respond ** ****** *********** **************** K ************ * 2014 * ********** ******* ****** have an increase ** **** *** ******** *** reticular ***** ** keloids *** ************ scars ******** ************ cells ********* ******* of *********** newly ****** ***** ******* *** ******** ************** 2017) ****** ********* synthesis of ******** ** ********** with ************* ****** signaling *** dermal fibroblasts **** **** **** metabolic and ******* ***** There ** ******** expression ** ************ ****** *********** ******** and **************** ****** factor ***************** K &Huether S **** * ************ ***** ******* ****** **** *** ******* ** occur ****** *** ************ *********************** ** defined ** * ***** response ** cellular ****** **** is ****** by ******* heat and **** and **** ****** ** * ********* initiating *** elimination of ******* ****** *** ** ******* ********* *********** **** p34)These *** *** cardinal ***** ** ************ along **** ******** ******* *** ******* *** *** result ** ************ *** increased ***** **** ******* the ******* ******* ******** ************ 2014p213) *** ***** process occurs ** **** order:“First ********** **** *** **** of ********* ** ****** constrict briefly ************ then ****** ****** blood velocity and ********* local blood **** ** *** ******* **** *** ********* **** *** capillary permeability ****** ** ******* ** ****** **** *** ******* ******* ******** ******* ** *** *********** tissue ** ****** ***** ******* ***** ********* in *** **************** ***** more slowly and ******* more ********** ********* ***** **** *** ********** ************* of red ***** at *** **** ** ************ ***** ******* increased ****** and ********** ******** ************ 2014p195)During *** inflammation ******* ******** ***** ***** *********** with **** other *** ********* ***** *** polypeptides released by cells of *** ****** ****** **** regulate ***** ***** **** *** a ***** class ** ******* ********* that ****** *** cell **** ** ******* particularly ** ******** ** ******* substances”(“Inflammation” ******* **** ** the ********** ******** What role does ** ***** What ** its *** result?17 What *** cytokines *** **** ***** do **** play?Cytokines *** **** ********* molecules **** ****** **** to **** ************ ** ****** ********* *** ********* *** movement ** ***** ** *** direction ** ************ ********* and ****** ********* lives ** peptide ******* and ************ ********** *** two main classifications ** ********* *** ************ *** interferons ******** * ******** ************ *** ********* ****** ** *********** and **************** ********* increase the adaptive ****** ******** ** fight ******* ********** ************** *** ***** unknown ********************** *** **** an ***************** ******** and **** ****** the ************ ************ *** ** ************* **** and ****** *** body’s *********** to **** ******* *** infectionPhagocytes and lymphocytes *** ********** ** ***************** reactions ******************* *** *********** *** development of ********** ** *** **** ****** *** ******* the ***** molecule communication of different ***** ******** * **************** **** ***** ******* ***** ********** and control the ************ ****************** cells *** ********* by ********** proteins manufactured by *** interferonsInterferons also ****** ** the *********** ** the ******** immune reaction ******* ***** ******** ** ******** ***** ******** * *************

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