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South University NSG5003 week 3 study guide 1. Two hits are required to inactivate tumor suppressor genes because? 2. A carcinoma refers to abnormal cell proliferation originating from whi

South University NSG5003 week 3 study guide

1.       Two hits are required to inactivate tumor suppressor genes because?

2.       A carcinoma refers to abnormal cell proliferation originating from which tissue?

3.       Which aberrant change causes the abnormal growth in a retinoblastoma?

4.       When is the peak age for cancer in children?

5.       What are caretaker genes?

6.       Which is the major virus involved in the development of cervical cancer?

7.       What is the consequence for cells when the functioning TP53 gene is lost as a result of mutation?

8.       What is the correlation between pain and cancer?

9.       What are the survival rate for the different stages of Hodgkin’s disease?

10.   Which cancer may be treated with radiation delivered by brachytherapy?

11.   What are characteristics of benign and metastatic tumors?

12.   List the stages of breast cancer. What does each stage mean? What are the survival rates with each stage?

13.   Many cancers create a mutation of ras. ras is a(an):

14.   In childhood neuroblastoma, the N-myc oncogene undergoes which type of mutation of normal genes to oncogenes? P.376 p 444

15.   Which term is used to describe a muscle cell showing a reduced ability to form new muscle, while appearing highly disorganized?

16.   Oncogenes are genes that are capable of:

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genes *** *********** for *** maintenance ** ******* integrity Caretaker genesencode ******** **** *** ******** ** repairing ******* DNA **** ** ****** **** ****** ** *** *********** ********* ****** by *********** ** ionizing radiation and ********* ****** by chemicals and ***** **** ** ******** *********** genesleads ** ********* mutation ***** ** *** damage ** severe *** **** ********* ********** **** ***** ** ********* ****** **** simply ******** **** ******* **** Which ** *** ***** virus ******** ** *** development ** ******** ******** ***** papillomavirus ***** is *** **** ****** ******** *********** virus in the UnitedStates ********** ** ********* **** *** cause ****** * *********** ** ********* ************** *** ** a prerequisite *** the *********** ** ******** intraepithelial ********* (CIN)lesions *** ******** ******** ******** **** is *** consequence *** ***** **** *** *********** TP53 **** ** **** ** * result ** mutation?a *** ******* to ********* ** ******** in ******** ******* *** **** ****** mutations conferring ********** to apoptosis occur ** ************ **** is the *********** between **** *** ******** Significant **** can ***** in ********** ** ****** *********** ************* ** the pain Direct ******** *********** ******** ** a ********* structure ********** ******** of * growing tumor on nerve endings ********** ** visceral ******** ****** *********** infection and ************ *** *** cause **** (McCance ************ **** * **** ******* *** ******* *** cancer pain into ***** ********** ****** **** ********** ** ***** ****** *** ******* ** *** ******* *** **** ********** **** ********* ** *** disease *** (3) **** ********** ** ********** entities that *** ********* ** the ********** (McCance &Huether **** p 494)9 **** are the ******** **** *** *** ********* ****** ** *********** ********* 99% for stage I 95% *** stage ** 85% *** ***** III *** *** *** stage ** (p **** *** ***** ** remember is **** *** ******* *** estimates *** **** ******** ****** ****** the survival rate **** ** ************* ********* and ****** Which ****** *** ** ******* **** ********* ********* by *************** ********** **** *** characteristics ** ****** *** ********** ******** ************ which are not ******** to as ******* *** usually encapsulated and **** ************** **** retain **** ****** tissue structure *** ** *** ****** *** ******** surrounding them or ****** ** ******** ***** nodes ** ******* ********************* *** generally named ********* ** *** ******* **** ***** **** ***** *** ******* *** ****** ********** *** ******* ************ ** *** smooth ****** ** *** uterus is ********** *** ************ of fat ***** ** alipomab **** tumors initially ********* *********** ******** *********** **** *** ******** ** *********** tumors These tumors *** distinguished frombenigntumors ** ***** **** ***** ****** ***** *** ******** *********** *********** ********* loss ** *************** *** ******* ** ****** ****** organization *** of *** ********* ofcancercells as seen ***** *** ********** *********** *** loss ** ******** differentiation ************** of the size *** ***** of *** nucleus *** the loss ** ****** ****** ********* ********* tumors *** ******* **** ********* ******* ** ************** **** **** a ******* *** even ** * capsule ** apparent *** ********* *** **** *********** ** **** tumor ***** *** **** ** ****** ****** ***** ******* lymphatics *** *********** ********** *** **** ********* *** most deadly ************** ** ********* tumors ** ***** ******* ** ****** *** ****** *** ****** ** ****** * ******* ***** ************** **** the stages ** ****** ****** **** **** **** ***** ***** **** *** *** ******** ***** **** **** ******* ****** ****** ** ****** ***** ******* ********* scales *** ***** ** the size ** *** ***** It ** ****** ********* ** *** **** tissue it ** **** ** and *** much of *** *********** tissue it ** consuming ********** **** **** at whether ** not *** tumor has ****** ** lymph ***** ** ************ ** ***** ****** Samples of *** ***** are taken *** ******** *** both its ******** *** ******** ****** Physicians are ******** ** see whether ***** ***** ***** **** ************ ** ******** in **** which *** *** ******** **** ********* cancer ****** They **** **** at ******* ** *** *** individual tumor ***** **** **** ****** ****** ***** ** ******* **** are ********* **** ****** ***** stages *** further ** ****** **** **** *** TNM cancer ******* system * stands *** the tumor's size T1 is * tumor **** ** *** ** **** in size ** is ******* than 2cm *** **** **** *** ** ** more **** *** T4 ** a tumor growing into the ***** wall ** surrounding ******* * ********* the ****** to ***** ***** ** ***** **** no lymph ***** cannot ** assessed ***** ***** ** for ****** whom *** surrounding ***** ********** removed N0 ********* **** no ***** nodes *** ******** N1 ** ***** *** ****** has ****** ** ***** ***** ***** ***** **** ** ***** under *** **** N2 ** cancer **** has ****** ** *** ***** ***** *** arm or into *** lymph ***** ** *** ****** ****** N3 is **** *** ****** spreads ** ** axillary ***** nodes ** ***** ***** *** collarbone and ** ******* than 2cm * ********* ********** ** ** when ** ****** ** ******** ** means that *** ****** has *** ************ ** ***** it *** ****** to *********** ****** **** as ***** ***** ** ***** (ACS 2018)c ****** cancer **** *** ***** cancers ** also ****** ** ******* ***** identifies cancer **** *** *** **** *** ****** ****** *** ** *** ********* to ***** tissues ***** * ***** **** ****** ***** *** ******** *** surrounding ******* ** *** ****** *** not ***** tissues Stage * ***** ** of *** ****** *** ** ***** is no cancer ** *** breast *** ** ***** in *** ******** ***** nodes ** ** *** nodes ***** the ****** **** or two *** ***** ** 2-5cm *** may ** *** *** ** ** *** ******** ***** ***** Stage * ***** *** of three ****** *** the ***** can ** *** **** and cancer ** ***** ** *** ***** ***** ** *** ******** ** ****** **** **** *** *** ***** ** *** **** and has ****** ** the ***** wall or ****** **** and *** ** *** not **** ************ *** redness or the breast ***** ***** may ** ** tumor ** *** ****** ** it *** ** ** any **** *** ****** ** *** ****** ****** *** chest wall and cancer ** found in ** ** **** lymph ***** in the ********* *** ** *** ********** **** ***** * ********* breast cancer **** *** spread to *********** organs *** ******* **** ** the ***** *** liver (Dabbs ****** *** ****** ********** ****** *** ****** ******** ******** **** *** women **** stage or ***** * breast ****** ** close ** ******* ***** **** stage II ****** cancer *** 5-year ******** ******** **** ** about ****** ****** ******** survival rate *** stage *** breast ******* ** ***** 72%Metastatic ** stage ** ****** ******* **** * ****** ******** ******** **** ** about **** **** ***** Breast ****** ******** ** *** ***** *** ** ************* **** cancers create a ******** ** *** *** ** ******* *********************** protein **** ********* **** ****** ** to ********* ** *** ******* have an ********** mutation in the **** for ** ************* ********* ******* ****** *** **** mutant ************* **** ****** **** **** ****** ******* *** ********* ** childhood ************* the ***** ******** ********* ***** **** ** mutation ** ****** ***** ** ********** **** * **** ************** are the result of *** *********** ** a ***** piece of * ********** **** *** **** ****** ************ ******* of *** normal *** ****** of a **** **** ** **** hundreds ******** *** present **** ******* ** The ************* ** ********* ** 25% of childhood neuroblastoma15 Which **** ** **** ** describe * muscle **** ******* * ******* ability ** form new muscle ***** ********* ****** ************** Anaplasiais ******* ** the **** ** ******** *************** ************** of *** size *** shape of *** ******* and *** loss ** normal ****** structure In ******** specimens ********* is ********** by * **** of ************ *** * significant increase ** ******* size **** ******** **** ********* *** ***** **** are capable **** ********* *** ****** genes **** ****** ******** ****** synthesis ** ******** **** ********** ******** ************ ******************** ** ************ * * (2014 ************************ *** ******** Basis for ******* ** ****** and ******** **** ***** Louis MO: ******* ***** **** *********************

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